Targets Associated to Immuno Processes - Inflammation

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Inflammation
GPCRs
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
ACKR1
(Chemokine receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
ACKR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
ACKR2
(Chemokine receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
ACKR2 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
ADGRE2
(Adhesion Class GPCRs)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • granulocyte chemotaxis (GO:0071621) IMP
ADGRE2 is included in GtoImmuPdb because its tissue expression profile and its ability to activate secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF) by monocytes and macrophages [115] ...
ADGRE5
(Adhesion Class GPCRs)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
ADGRE5 is included in GtoImmuPdb because its tissue expression profile and the phenotypes expressed by mouse ADGRE5 knockouts suggest an involvement in inflammation.
A2A receptor
(Adenosine receptors)
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IEA
A2A receptor is discussed in this immuno-oncology review [2] ...
A2B receptor
(Adenosine receptors)
  • positive regulation of chronic inflammatory response to non-antigenic stimulus (GO:0002882) IEA
  • positive regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043306) IEA
A2B receptor is discussed in this immuno-oncology review [2] ...
A3 receptor
(Adenosine receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
Agonist stimulation of the A2A and A3 receptors down-regulates production of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α and IL-8 in human synoviocytes [288] ...
BLT1 receptor
(Leukotriene receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
The human BLT1 receptor is the high affinity leukotriene B4 receptor, involved in mediating chemotaxis and immunomodulation in several leukocyte populations.
B1 receptor
(Bradykinin receptors)
  • positive regulation of leukocyte migration (GO:0002687) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
Bradykinin ...
B2 receptor
(Bradykinin receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IC
Bradykinin is a vasoactive, pain inducing and pro-inflammatory (phlogistic) kinin released during acute inflammation, and its receptors, B1 and B2, are expressed on eosinophils, and neutrophils. The B2 receptor antagonist icatibant was evaluated in a Phase 2 trial for osteoarthritis [71] ...
C3a receptor
(Complement peptide receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis (GO:0010759) IEA
  • regulation of complement activation (GO:0030449) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) IBA
  • positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0090023) IEA
Complement C3a receptor 1 is the receptor for complement factor C3a, a component of the alternative complement cascade. It can have pro-inflammatory actions, but can also counteract the proinflammatory effects of C5a.
C5a1 receptor
(Complement peptide receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis (GO:0010759) IEA
  • regulation of complement activation (GO:0030449) TAS
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) IEA
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) IBA
  • positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0090023) IEA
C5aR is typically associated with the compement cascade and innate immunity.
C5a2 receptor
(Complement peptide receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • regulation of complement activation (GO:0030449) TAS
  • negative regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0090024) IMP
C5aR is typically associated with the compement cascade and innate immunity. However, the complement C5a receptor 2 may act as a decoy receptor for C5a, as it has no reported G protein signalling capacity.
CB1 receptor
(Cannabinoid receptors)
  • positive regulation of acute inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus (GO:0002866) IEA
  • positive regulation of fever generation (GO:0031622) IEA
  • negative regulation of mast cell activation (GO:0033004) IEA
CB1 receptor is involved in controlling mast cell degranulation and maturation [266] ...
CB2 receptor
(Cannabinoid receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • leukocyte chemotaxis (GO:0030595) IEA
  • negative regulation of mast cell activation (GO:0033004) IEA
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IEA
CB2 receptor on eosinophils mainly mediates anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions e.g. downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediator release. Pharmacological targeting with the CB2 receptor selective antagonist SR144528 attenuates the recruitment of eosinophils and ear swelling in a murine chronic contact dermatitis model [210] ...
CCR1
(Chemokine receptors)
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis (GO:0090026) IDA
CCR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
CCR2
(Chemokine receptors)
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • positive regulation of T cell chemotaxis (GO:0010820) ISS
  • T-helper 17 cell chemotaxis (GO:0035705) ISS
  • negative regulation of eosinophil degranulation (GO:0043310) ISS
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) ISS
  • positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis (GO:0090026) IDA
  • positive regulation of monocyte extravasation (GO:2000439) ISS
  • positive regulation of CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell extravasation (GO:2000451) ISS
CCR2 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CCR2 is discussed in relation to immuno-oncology in [2] ...
CCR3
(Chemokine receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
CCR3 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
CCR4
(Chemokine receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
CCR4 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
CCR5
(Chemokine receptors)
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
CCR5 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CCR5 is discussed in relation to immuno-oncology in [2] ...
CCR6
(Chemokine receptors)
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) TAS
  • leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002523) ISS
  • isotype switching to IgA isotypes (GO:0048290) ISS
  • lymphocyte migration (GO:0072676) ISS
  • T cell migration (GO:0072678) ISS
  • thymocyte migration (GO:0072679) ISS
  • regulation of T cell migration (GO:2000404) ISS
  • positive regulation of dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:2000510) IEA
CCR6 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
CCR7
(Chemokine receptors)
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) IC
  • myeloid dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002408) IDA
  • positive regulation of hypersensitivity (GO:0002885) ISS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) NAS
  • positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0090023) IDA
  • lymphocyte migration into lymph node (GO:0097022) TAS
  • positive regulation of dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:2000510) ISS
CCR7 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
CCRL2
(Chemokine receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) ISS
CCRL2 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. However, the nomenclature of CCLR2 for this receptor and its classification as a member of the chemokine receptor family is prov ...
chemerin receptor
(Chemerin receptor)
  • positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis (GO:0010759) IMP
The chemerin receptor is activated by the lipid-derived, anti-inflammatory autacoid ligand resolvin E1 ...
CXCR1
(Chemokine receptors)
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
CXCR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CXCR1 is discussed in relation to immuno-oncology in [2] ...
CXCR2
(Chemokine receptors)
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) IDA
  • neutrophil activation (GO:0042119) IDA
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
CXCR2 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CXCR2 is discussed in relation to immuno-oncology in [2] ...
CXCR3
(Chemokine receptors)
  • regulation of leukocyte migration (GO:0002685) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • T cell chemotaxis (GO:0010818) IEA
CXCR3 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CXCR3 is the receptor for CXCL9, -10 and -11, three CXC chemokines that are preferentially expressed on Th1 lymphocytes.
CXCR4
(Chemokine receptors)
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
CXCR4 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
CXCR6
(Chemokine receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
CXCR6 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CXCR6 is upregulated by IL-2 and IL-15 [285] ...
CX3CR1
(Chemokine receptors)
  • microglial cell activation (GO:0001774) IEA
  • negative regulation of chronic inflammatory response to non-antigenic stimulus (GO:0002881) IEA
CX3CR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
CysLT1 receptor
(Leukotriene receptors)
  • inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus (GO:0002437) IEA
CysLT1 is a receptor for cysteinyl-leukotrienes. Both CysLT1 and CysLT2 mediate cysteinyl-leukotriene-induced modulation of smooth muscle cell contraction, regulation of vascular permeability, and leukocyte activation.
DP1 receptor
(Prostanoid receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
DP1 receptor activation by prostaglandins mediates chemotaxis of pro-inflammatory cells such as basophils, eosinophils, and T cells. DP2 and DP1 may function to counteract each other's inflammatory action [109] ...
EP3 receptor
(Prostanoid receptors)
  • positive regulation of fever generation (GO:0031622) ISS
Studies in mice suggest that EP3 receptors may participate in reducing allergic reactivity.
EP4 receptor
(Prostanoid receptors)
  • T-helper cell differentiation (GO:0042093) ISS
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IDA
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) ISS
  • negative regulation of eosinophil extravasation (GO:2000420) IDA
The EP4 prostanoid receptor is one of four receptor subtypes for prostaglandin PGE2. The anti- and pro-inflammatory (and non-inflammatory) activities of this receptor are reviewed in [316] ...
FFA2 receptor
(Free fatty acid receptors)
  • leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002232) ISS
  • regulation of acute inflammatory response (GO:0002673) ISS
  • cell surface pattern recognition receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002752) IMP
  • positive regulation of acute inflammatory response to non-antigenic stimulus (GO:0002879) ISS
FFA2 is a GPCR activated by short-chain fatty acids, and evidence suggests that FFA2 (and FFA3) mediate beneficial effects associated with a fiber-rich diet. These GPCRs are of interest as targets for the treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. FFA2 is included in GtoImmuPdb as it is highly expressed on immune cells, in particular neutrophils, and evidence points to a role in diseases with dysfunctional neutrophil responses, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A Phase 2 trial of the clinical candidate GLPG0974 ...
FFA3 receptor
(Free fatty acid receptors)
  • positive regulation of acute inflammatory response to non-antigenic stimulus (GO:0002879) ISS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
FFA3 has been included in GtoImmuPdb as its expression has been detected in immune cells [39] ...
FPR1
(Formylpeptide receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) IBA
The primary function of FPR1 is recognition of formylpeptides including bacterial formylpeptides, so it is therefore a component of the host defense mechanism.
FPR2/ALX
(Formylpeptide receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) IBA
Formyl peptide receptor type 2 ( (FPR2/ALX) activation by lipoxin A4 and annexin 1 has been linked to resolution of inflammation, via upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. FPR2/ALX receptor agonism is a new therapeutic concept to treat inflammatory conditions.
FPR2/ALX
(Formylpeptide receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) IBA
Formyl peptide receptor type 2 ( (FPR2/ALX) activation by lipoxin A4 and annexin 1 has been linked to resolution of inflammation, via upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. FPR2/ALX receptor agonism is a new therapeutic concept to treat inflammatory conditions.
H1 receptor
(Histamine receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • eosinophil chemotaxis (GO:0048245) IEA
The H1 receptor was the first of the family to be targeted for clinical use, with antagonists (anti-histamines) developed that are still used widely to treat alleric inflammation such as rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, urticaria and even anaphylaxis.
H4 receptor
(Histamine receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
H4 receptor is primarily expressed in mast cells and eosinophils, but is also found on human neutrophils and basophils, and plays an important role in modulating eosinophil chemotaxis [207,317] ...
GPR15
(Class A Orphans)
  • T cell migration (GO:0072678) IEA
Several lines of evidence suggest that GPR15 is a chemoattractant receptor supporting the trafficking of T effector cells to the colon [100,203] ...
GPR183
(Class A Orphans)
  • B cell activation involved in immune response (GO:0002312) IBA
  • mature B cell differentiation involved in immune response (GO:0002313) ISS
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) ISS
  • T cell chemotaxis (GO:0010818) ISS
  • leukocyte chemotaxis (GO:0030595) IMP
  • T follicular helper cell differentiation (GO:0061470) ISS
Gpr183-deficient mice show a reduction in the early antibody response to a T-dependent antigen. GPR183-deficient B cells fail to migrate to the outer follicle and instead stay in the follicle centre [139,222] ...
MAS1
(Class A Orphans)
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) IEA
Experimental evidence from animal studies suggest a role for MAS1 in the anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by angiotensin-(1-7) [65,77] ...
MRGPRX2
(Class A Orphans)
  • mast cell degranulation (GO:0043303) IDA
  • mast cell activation (GO:0045576) IDA
Expression of MRGPRX2 was initially reported predominantly in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion. More recently expression has been detected in human mast cells. In these cells the receptor is activated by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, resulting in calcium mobilisation and degranulation [188,264] ...
NK1 receptor
(Tachykinin receptors)
  • acute inflammatory response (GO:0002526) IEA
  • positive regulation of leukocyte migration (GO:0002687) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
Expression in monocytes, macrophages and T helper cells suggests a role in inflammation/immunity.
PAF receptor
(Platelet-activating factor receptor)
  • lipopolysaccharide receptor activity (GO:0001875) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • positive regulation of neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043315) IEA
  • interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060333) TAS
  • positive regulation of leukocyte tethering or rolling (GO:1903238) IEA
PAF deficiency results in defective inflammatory response to infection in mice.
PAR2
(Proteinase-activated receptors)
  • T cell activation involved in immune response (GO:0002286) ISS
  • positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis (GO:0002690) IDA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • positive regulation of toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway (GO:0034137) IMP
  • negative regulation of toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway (GO:0034140) IMP
  • positive regulation of toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway (GO:0034141) IMP
  • positive regulation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (GO:0034145) IDA
  • neutrophil activation (GO:0042119) IDA
  • positive regulation of eosinophil degranulation (GO:0043311) IDA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) IDA
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment (GO:0060100) IDA
PAR2 receptors have been reported to elicit pain and inflammation through a neurogenic mechanism of action, causing release of substance P, activation of NK1 receptors, and sensitization of TRPV1 voltage-gated ion channels. This action can be negated using a selective NK1 receptor antagonist (L732,138) or a TRPV1 receptor antagonist (capsazepine) [91] ...
S1P1 receptor
(Lysophospholipid (S1P) receptors)
  • leukocyte chemotaxis (GO:0030595) IEA
  • T cell migration (GO:0072678) ISS
S1P1R activation by agonists downregulates allergic inflammation (i.e. it has an inhibitory effect) [119-120,243] ...
S1P3 receptor
(Lysophospholipid (S1P) receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
In the immune system S1P receptors regulate immune cell trafficking and mitogenesis, are involved in immune-modulation, and suppression of innate immune T cell responses.
XCR1
(Chemokine receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
XCR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. XCR1 is expressed by a subset of dendritic cells [160] ...
Nuclear Hormone Receptors
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
Farnesoid X receptor
(1H. Liver X receptor-like receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (GO:0034142) IDA
  • toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway (GO:0034162) IEA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IEA
FXR is predominantly expressed in liver, intestine, kidney and adipose tissue, but has also been detected in immune cells (CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD14+ cells) [246] ...
Liver X receptor-α
(1H. Liver X receptor-like receptors)
  • positive regulation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (GO:0034145) IDA
  • negative regulation of macrophage activation (GO:0043031) ISS
  • apoptotic cell clearance (GO:0043277) IMP
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) ISS
  • negative regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060336) NAS
Liver X receptors are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses- drug target for cholesterol homeostasis (hypercholesterolaemia), inflammation, and with potential therapeutic effects in neurodegenerative diseases [308] ...
Liver X receptor-β
(1H. Liver X receptor-like receptors)
  • negative regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060336) NAS
Liver X receptors are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses- drug target for cholesterol homeostasis (hypercholesterolaemia), inflammation, and with potential therapeutic effects in neurodegenerative diseases [308] ...
RAR-related orphan receptor-γ
(1F. Retinoic acid-related orphans)
  • T-helper cell differentiation (GO:0042093) ISS
  • T-helper 17 cell differentiation (GO:0072539) ISS
RORγ inhibitors are under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis [116] ...
Enzymes
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1
(PDK1 family)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034122) IEA
  • regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043304) IEA
In addition to its role in oncology, in mouse studies, PDK1 is reported to play a part in regulating insulin sensitivity (and inhibiting adipose tissue inflammation), via the Pdk1/Foxo1 pathway and expression of Ccr2 [136] ...
5-LOX
(Lipoxygenases)
  • leukotriene production involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002540) IEA
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
5LOX is included in GtoImmuPdb because of its involvement in eicosanoid turnover.
ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase
(Abl family)
  • B cell proliferation involved in immune response (GO:0002322) IEA
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
Included in GtoImmuPdb based on its association with leukemia.
ADAM17
(M12: Astacin/Adamalysin)
  • positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis (GO:0002690) IC
  • positive regulation of T cell chemotaxis (GO:0010820) IMP
The proteolytic activity of ADAM17 (a type I transmembrane metalloproteinase; a.k.a.TNF-alpha converting enzyme or TACE) is involved in the shedding of the extracellular domains of several transmembrane proteins e.g. cytokines (TNFα), growth factors, receptors (IL-6R and TNF-R for example) and adhesion molecules. Cleavage of substrates, including TNFα, IL-6R and L-selectin, produce pro-inflammatory effects stimulating both innate and acquired immune responses. ADAM17 activity is crucial during development (ADAM17 knockout is embryonic lethal), and it has been shown that the soluble IL-6R/IL-6 complex generates agonist-like signals in a process termed IL-6 trans-signaling. The generation and maintenance of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases is driven by IL-6 trans-signaling [48] ...
ADAM8
(M12: Astacin/Adamalysin)
  • leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002523) ISS
  • positive regulation of acute inflammatory response (GO:0002675) ISS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IDA
  • activation of MAPK activity involved in innate immune response (GO:0035419) ISS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • lymphocyte chemotaxis (GO:0048247) ISS
  • positive regulation of neutrophil extravasation (GO:2000391) IDA
  • positive regulation of fibronectin-dependent thymocyte migration (GO:2000415) ISS
  • positive regulation of eosinophil migration (GO:2000418) ISS
ADAM8 is reported to drive acute allergen-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model, and effect negated by ADAM8-deficiency (antibody-induced or gene knockout) [221] ...
Adenosine deaminase
(Adenosine turnover)
  • germinal center B cell differentiation (GO:0002314) IEA
  • negative regulation of leukocyte migration (GO:0002686) IEA
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IEA
Adenosine deaminase deficiency causes immunodeficiency (ADA deficiency or ADA-SCID). Around 30 known genotypes are associated with this autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. Mitotically active cells such as developing T cells and B cells are susceptible to this deficiency, expaining the resulting ...
amine oxidase, copper containing 3
(1.-.-.- Oxidoreductases)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
As a membrane-bound glycoprotein. AOC3 is expressed on the surface of endothelial cells when exposed to inflammatory conditions. It has been noted to mediate binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells a process required for the recirculation of lymphocytes between blood and tissue. This activity profile has suggested AOC3 as a potential drug target for inflammatory and vascular diseases [241] ...
Arginase I
(Arginase)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
The role of ARG1 in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
BLK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
BLK is a B cell-specific kinase. In Blk knockout mice B cells develop normally and show unaltered in vitro activation and humoral immune responses to T cell-dependent and -independent antigens, a result which is indicative of functional redundancy of Blk in B cell development and immune responses [276] ...
BMX non-receptor tyrosine kinase
(Tec family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [29] ...
Bruton tyrosine kinase
(Tec family)
  • positive regulation of type III hypersensitivity (GO:0001805) IEA
  • positive regulation of type I hypersensitivity (GO:0001812) IEA
  • histamine secretion by mast cell (GO:0002553) IEA
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [29] ...
calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV
(CAMK1 family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation (GO:0043011) IMP
CAMKIV has been implicated in the differentiation of Th17 cells, suggesting CAMKIV as a target for therapeutic intervention in Th17-driven autoimmune diseases [148] ...
Caspase 8
(C14: Caspase)
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070423) TAS
Roles of apoptotic caspases extending beyond cell death, for example, mediating cellular immune processes such as inflammasome modulation, necroptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine processing have been reported [182] ...
cathepsin B
(C1: Papain)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
Cathepsins B, H and L have become important therapeutic targets as their proteolytic activity has been implicated in several pathological inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and periodontitis. Therefore, pharmacological inhibitors of these enzymes are in development as novel therapeutics.
cathepsin C
(C1: Papain)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
Cathepsin C is a lysosomal cysteine protease constitutively expressed at high levels in lung, kidney, liver and spleen. As well as activity in lysosomal protein degradation, catheposin C also plays a key role in the activation of granule serine proteases in cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells (g ...
cathepsin G
(S1: Chymotrypsin)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
Cathepsin G is a leukocyte serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, related to neutrophil elastase and the granzymes. It is stored in azurophil granules and acts intracellularly to degrade ingested host pathogens and axtracellularly to breakdown ECM components at sites of inflammation. Cathepsin ...
cathepsin H
(C1: Papain)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
Cathepsin H may act as a pro-granzyme B convertase [64] ...
cathepsin L
(C1: Papain)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
Cathepsins B, H and L have become important therapeutic targets as their proteolytic activity has been implicated in several pathological inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and periodontitis. Therefore, pharmacological inhibitors of these enzymes are in development as novel therapeutics.
cathepsin S
(C1: Papain)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
Due to its role in antigen presentation, inhibition of cathepsin S is expected to cause immunosuppression. Cathepsin S inhibitors are being investigated for clinical efficacy in inflammatory conditions- e.g. RG7625 (Roche) in celiac disease (Phase 1) and Sjogren's syndrome (Phase 2).
complement C1r
(S1: Chymotrypsin)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
A protease component of the C1-complex of the classical complement pathway.
complement C1s
(S1: Chymotrypsin)
  • complement activation, lectin pathway (GO:0001867) IBA
A protease component of the C1-complex of the classical complement pathway.
complement factor B
(S1: Chymotrypsin)
  • complement activation, alternative pathway (GO:0006957) TAS
  • regulation of complement activation (GO:0030449) TAS
A protease component of the alternative complement pathway. Cleaved by complement factor D ...
complement factor D
(3.4.21.46 Complement factor D)
  • complement activation, alternative pathway (GO:0006957) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
A protease component of the alternative complement pathway; responsible for cleaving complement factor B ...
conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase
(IKK family)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070423) TAS
Ikkα is one of the catalytic subunits of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, an upstream component of the NF-κB signal transduction cascade; NF-κB signaling being involved in propagating the cellular response to inflammation. IKK frees NF-κB from its inhibitory interaction with IκBα (inhibitor of kappa B), allowing NF-κB translocation to the nucleus where it modulates transcriptional activity. Additional functions of Ikkα beyond NF-κB activation are reviewed in [114] ...
COX-1
(Cyclooxygenase)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
The cyclooxygenase enzymes are included in GtoImmuPdb as they are involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, and are long-standing anti-inflammatory drug targets.
COX-2
(Cyclooxygenase)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • positive regulation of fever generation (GO:0031622) ISS
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) NAS
The cyclooxygenase enzymes are included in GtoImmuPdb as they are involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, and are long-standing anti-inflammatory drug targets. The role of COX-2 in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
C-terminal Src kinase
(Csk family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • negative regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050765) IEA
CSK is an inhibitory regulator of Src family kinases, a family of protein tyrosine kinases indispensable to the initiation of signal transduction via ITAM-bearing immunoreceptors, and cytokine, growth factor, and pattern recognition receptor signalling. CSK phosphorylates an inhibitory tyrosine residue at the C terminus of Src kinases, leading to autoinhibition. CSK-induced Src kinase inhibition can also be mediated by binding to PEST family receptor tyrosine phosphatases [289] ...
death associated protein kinase 2
(Death-associated kinase (DAPK) family)
  • positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0090023) IMP
  • neutrophil migration (GO:1990266) IEA
  • positive regulation of eosinophil chemotaxis (GO:2000424) IMP
DAPk2 is recognised as a regulator of apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation [93] ...
Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase
(Adenosine turnover)
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IEA
Via the conversion of ADP/ATP to AMP (CD39; ENTPD1) and AMP to adenosine (CD73; NT5E) these ectonucleotidase enzymes are crucial to the regulation of purinergic signals delivered to immune cells [9] ...
elastase, neutrophil expressed
(S1: Chymotrypsin)
  • acute inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus (GO:0002438) IBA
  • leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002523) IEA
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) IBA
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) NAS
  • positive regulation of leukocyte tethering or rolling (GO:1903238) IEA
Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a serine proteinase with broad substrate specificity. It is stored in azurophil granules within neutrophils and is involved primarily in host defence. However, in addition to attacking proteins on invading microorganisms, secreted NE also hydrolyzes proteins of the host e ...
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 2
(Other PEK family kinases)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
Protein kinase-R (EIF2AK2) is activated by virally-introduced double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and is therefore involved in protection against viral infection. Protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase EIF2AK2 (PACT; PRKRA) also activates protein kinase-R. Activated protein kinase-R phosphorylates the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2α inhibiting viral protein synthesis [90] ...
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4
(GCN2 subfamily)
  • T cell activation involved in immune response (GO:0002286) ISS
GCN2 is a so-called 'stress kinase'. It phosphorylates serine 51 on the global transcription factor eIF2α upon activation by uncharged tRNA; tRNAs accumulate when amino acid levels are depleted. Phospho-eIF2α blocks translation to cause proliferative arrest.

GCN2 plays several roles in the immune system. It is required for dendritic cell activation and antigen presentation. The GCN2 stress response is required for both optimal proliferation of CD8+ T cells after antigen stimulation, and trafficking to lymphoid organs, i.e. for normal cytotoxic T cell function [287] ...
FER tyrosine kinase
(Fer family)
  • negative regulation of mast cell activation involved in immune response (GO:0033007) ISS
  • regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043304) IBA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • diapedesis (GO:0050904) ISS
FER acts downstream of the activated high affinity immunoglobulin epsilon receptor (FCεR1) and plays a role in FCεR1-mediated signaling in mast cells, regulation of mast cell degranulation, leukocyte recruitment, and leukocyte extravasation following bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS ...
FGR proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • positive regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043306) ISS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045088) ISS
  • regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050764) ISS
Fgr may be involved in neutrophil migration, potentially via binding to intergrins [23] ...
FYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
Animal models and cell line studies indicate a critical role for Fyn in proximal T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal transduction [217] ...
Haem oxygenase 1
(Haem oxygenase)
  • wound healing involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002246) IMP
  • negative regulation of leukocyte migration (GO:0002686) TAS
  • negative regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043305) IEA
Heme oxygenase (HO) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of heme, catalyzing the oxidative cleavage of heme (Fe-protoporphyrin-IX) to render equimolar amounts of biliverdin, ferrous iron (Fe2+), and carbon monoxide (CO).

Heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) is a Nrf2-regulated gene, whose expression is upregulated as a cytoprotective mechanism in response to cellular stresses including inflammation, ischemia, hypoxia, hyperoxia, hyperthermia, or radiation.

HO1 has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects in vascular cells, playing an important role in the prevention of vascular inflammation and atherogenesis (reviewed in [11] ...
HCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • leukocyte migration involved in immune response (GO:0002522) TAS
  • innate immune response-activating signal transduction (GO:0002758) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) TAS
  • regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050764) IMP
  • interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060333) TAS
Hck is thought to be involved in neutrophil migration, potentially via binding to intergrins [23] ...
IL2 inducible T-cell kinase
(Tec family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [29] ...
indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1
(1.13.11.- Dioxygenases)
  • cytokine production involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002534) IEA
  • positive regulation of chronic inflammatory response (GO:0002678) IEA
Depletion of tryptophan (catalyzed by IDO1) promotes Treg cell differentiation, suppresses the immune response and decreases DC function, creating a tolerogenic environment. IDO1 inhibitors reverse this response. ID01 has emerged as a promising molecular target for the development of novel agents as cancer immunotherapeutics, and for the treatment of other diseases characterized by the reduction of local tryptophan levels. The applicability of ID01 inhibition has been shown preclinical models of many diseases, including arthritis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxin shock, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, airway inflammation, and cancer [110,286] ...
Inducible NOS
(Nitric oxide synthases)
  • innate immune response in mucosa (GO:0002227) NAS
  • cellular response to interferon-gamma (GO:0071346) IEA
  • regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response (GO:1900015) IDA
The role of iNOS in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta
(IKK family)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070423) TAS
Iκβ kinase β (IKK-2) is the pivotal enzyme component of the Iκβ kinase (IKK) complex, a complex crucial in regulating expression and activation of inflammatory mediators in airway epithelium. IKK-2 is an attractive target for development of pharmaceutical inhibitors with antiinflammatory action as treatments for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [3,27,33,254] ...
inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit epsilon
(IKK family)
  • response to type I interferon (GO:0034340) IEA
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
IKKε is the only inducible IKK family member. Expression is induced in response to LPS, viral infection and several cytokines. IKKε expression is restricted to pancreas, thymus, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. This is in contrast to all other IKK family kinases which are cons ...
INPP5D
(Inositol polyphosphate phosphatases)
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
SHIP1 activators are proposed as novel anti-inflammatory agents e.g. rosiptor (AQX-1125) which is in Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials [204,261] ...
interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 1
(Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway (GO:0034134) IMP
  • toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (GO:0034142) IBA
  • toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway (GO:0034162) TAS
  • type I interferon signaling pathway (GO:0060337) IMP
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070423) TAS
One of the two proximal mediators of IL-1 signaling via the IL-1 receptor, plays a part in IL-1-induced upregulation of the transcription factor NF-κB, the other being IRAK2. Interacts with other proteins including TRAF6, Myd88, CHUK, IKK2 and TLR4.
interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 2
(Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002756) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway (GO:0034162) TAS
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070423) TAS
interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 3
(Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family)
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034122) ISS
  • negative regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045824) ISS
IRAK3 expression is restricted to monocytes and macrophages.
interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 4
(Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway (GO:0034162) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • neutrophil migration (GO:1990266) IMP
IRAK4 is essential for most innate immune responses to bacteria and viruses, and IRAK4 deficiency (caused by mutations) has been shown to result in recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease [189] ...
Janus kinase 1
(Janus kinase (JakA) family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060333) TAS
  • regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060334) TAS
  • type I interferon signaling pathway (GO:0060337) TAS
  • regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060338) TAS
The JAK1 tyrosine kinase is crucial for signaling of certain type I and type II cytokines, via receptors belonging to the IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 receptor families as well as neurotrophin-1 and leptin receptors (all type I cytokine receptors). JAK1 is also involved in signalling via type I ...
Janus kinase 2
(Janus kinase (JakA) family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) IDA
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) IEA
  • interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060333) TAS
  • regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060334) TAS
CEP-33779, a selective JAK2 inhibitor has demonstrated efficacy in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis [262] ...
Janus kinase 3
(Janus kinase (JakA) family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • negative regulation of T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045626) ISS
Psoriatic skin samples show elevated JAK3 (and JAK1) expression, with signalling predominantly through STAT3 [7] ...
LCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
Phosphorylation and activation of Lck is an early and critical step in pre-TCR (T cell receptor) and TCR signalling. Activated Lck phosphorylates immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs of the ζ chain of the TCR leading to recruitment and activation of ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase, and activation of downstream MAPKs and NF-κB. TCR-based signals are required at several stages of T-cell development and it is thought that Lck is the major contributor to TCR signal transduction (with the related Src tyrosine kinase Fyn also playing a role) [217] ...
Leukotriene A4 hydrolase
(Leukotriene and lipoxin metabolism)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
LTA4H is an established anti-inflammatory target. Expression has been identified in some cancer cells, where it may play a role in the development and progression of cancers associated with chronic inflammation, suggesting that LTA4H inhibitors may have efficacy as anti-cancer therapeutics [53] ...
Leukotriene A4 hydrolase
(Leukotriene and lipoxin metabolism)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
LTA4H is an established anti-inflammatory target. Expression has been identified in some cancer cells, where it may play a role in the development and progression of cancers associated with chronic inflammation, suggesting that LTA4H inhibitors may have efficacy as anti-cancer therapeutics [53] ...
Leukotriene A4 hydrolase
(Leukotriene and lipoxin metabolism)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
LTA4H is an established anti-inflammatory target. Expression has been identified in some cancer cells, where it may play a role in the development and progression of cancers associated with chronic inflammation, suggesting that LTA4H inhibitors may have efficacy as anti-cancer therapeutics [53] ...
LYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • histamine secretion by mast cell (GO:0002553) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • regulation of mast cell activation (GO:0033003) ISS
  • negative regulation of toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway (GO:0034136) ISS
  • negative regulation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (GO:0034144) ISS
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043304) ISS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) IEA
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
  • regulation of monocyte chemotaxis (GO:0090025) IMP
LYN is a Src family tyrosine kinase, expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, but also in neural, liver, and adipose tissues. LYN appears to function as a rheostat to modulate B cell signaling, and can be activating or inhibitory in action, depending on the B cell receptor and interacting protein complement present in particular cells [85,89,281] ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
(ERK subfamily)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
In endothelial cells of the vasculature, and in activated human mast cells, ERK serves as an anti-inflammatory signal that suppresses production of pro-inflammatory mediators [142,179] ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7
(TAK1 subfamily)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • positive regulation of T cell cytokine production (GO:0002726) IMP
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070423) TAS
TAK1 (MAP3K7) mediates signaling downstream of multiple cytokine receptors and is functionally important in mitogen, immune, and inflammatory signaling pathways [66,239] ...
MMP1
(M10: Matrix metallopeptidase)
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
Overexpression of MMP-1 degrades extracellular matrix causing damage to the colon mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis. The MMP-1 promotes secretion of TNFα causing futher damage. Levels of MMP-1 and TNFα correlate with disease severity [296] ...
MMP12
(M10: Matrix metallopeptidase)
  • negative regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060339) IEA
  • positive regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060340) IEA
MMP12 is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its reported involvement in asthma and potential as a asthma therapeutic target.
MMP14
(M10: Matrix metallopeptidase)
  • positive regulation of macrophage migration (GO:1905523) IEA
MMP14 is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its contribution to degradation of collagenous cartilage matrix in rheumatoid arthritis.
MMP2
(M10: Matrix metallopeptidase)
  • positive regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045089) IEA
MMP2 is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its potential involvement in asthma.
MMP8
(M10: Matrix metallopeptidase)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
MMP8 is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its potential protective role in asthma.
MMP9
(M10: Matrix metallopeptidase)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) IEA
Mucosal up-regulation of MMP-9 correlates with the severity of inflammation in ulcerative colitis, and may be responsible for the mucosal damage in active ulcerative colitis [155] ...
otulin
(C101: OTULIN peptidase)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IDA
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IMP
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathway (GO:0070431) IMP
Otulin is reported as a negative regulator of inflammation and autoimmunity [69] ...
p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1
(PAKA subfamily)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
PAK1 is reported to modulate a pro-inflammatory PPARγ/NF-κB cascade in intestinal inflammation, that may be relevant in inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer [70] ...
p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 2
(PAKA subfamily)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
Pharmacological inhibition of PAK2 has immunosuppressive effects [209] ...
peptidyl arginine deiminase 4
(3.5.3.15 Peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADI))
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
PADI4 is essential for neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation (NETosis) in pathogen elimination. PADI4-formed NETs containing hypercitrullinated histone H3 are detected in several systemic autoimmune diseases, including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis [86] ...
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
PI3Kα is priomarily recognised for its oncogenic function. We have included it in GtoImmuPdb based on its numerous GO immune process associations.
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
PI3Kα is priomarily recognised for its oncogenic function. We have included it in GtoImmuPdb based on its numerous GO immune process associations.
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • mast cell chemotaxis (GO:0002551) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • T cell chemotaxis (GO:0010818) TAS
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) TAS
  • natural killer cell chemotaxis (GO:0035747) TAS
  • B cell chemotaxis (GO:0035754) TAS
  • mast cell degranulation (GO:0043303) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • neutrophil extravasation (GO:0072672) TAS
The potential for PI3kδ as ta arget in immuno-oncology is discussed in [2] ...
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • mast cell chemotaxis (GO:0002551) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • T cell chemotaxis (GO:0010818) TAS
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) TAS
  • natural killer cell chemotaxis (GO:0035747) TAS
  • B cell chemotaxis (GO:0035754) TAS
  • mast cell degranulation (GO:0043303) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • neutrophil extravasation (GO:0072672) TAS
The potential for PI3kδ as ta arget in immuno-oncology is discussed in [2] ...
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) TAS
  • positive regulation of acute inflammatory response (GO:0002675) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • T cell chemotaxis (GO:0010818) TAS
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) TAS
  • natural killer cell chemotaxis (GO:0035747) TAS
  • mast cell degranulation (GO:0043303) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • neutrophil extravasation (GO:0072672) TAS
The role of PIK3CG in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • dendritic cell chemotaxis (GO:0002407) TAS
  • positive regulation of acute inflammatory response (GO:0002675) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • T cell chemotaxis (GO:0010818) TAS
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) TAS
  • natural killer cell chemotaxis (GO:0035747) TAS
  • mast cell degranulation (GO:0043303) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • neutrophil extravasation (GO:0072672) TAS
The role of PIK3CG in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1
(Phosphatidylinositol kinases)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
p85α is included in GtoImmuPdb as it is the regulatory subunit of several PI3Ks (e.g. PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ) with roles in leukocyte biology and therefore important for immunity [175] ...
PLA2-G7
(Phospholipase A2)
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) TAS
  • positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis (GO:0090026) IDA
Included in Guide to Immunopharmacology because of the association of PLA2G7 polymorphisms with atopy and asthma [151] ...
PLA2-G7
(Phospholipase A2)
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) TAS
  • positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis (GO:0090026) IDA
Included in Guide to Immunopharmacology because of the association of PLA2G7 polymorphisms with atopy and asthma [151] ...
PLCγ1
(Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
Two structurally similar isoforms of PLCγ are expressed by mast cells (PLCγ1 and PLCγ2). Both are important enzymes in the integrated signalling pathways leading to mast cell activation [95,238] ...
PLCγ2
(Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • follicular B cell differentiation (GO:0002316) IEA
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
Two structurally similar isoforms of PLCγ are expressed by mast cells (PLCγ1 and PLCγ2). Both are important enzymes in the integrated signalling pathways leading to mast cell activation [95,238] ...
proteasome subunit beta 8
(T1: Proteasome)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • type I interferon signaling pathway (GO:0060337) TAS
PSMB8 is a component of the immunoproteasome [82] ...
proteinase 3
(S1: Chymotrypsin)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • negative regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050765) IDA
Proteinase 3 (PR3), called myeloblastin when it was first identified, is an abundant serine protease found principally in neutrophil granules (but is also found on the surface of quiescent human neutrophils from peripheral blood). It is stored in the primary granules of circulating neutrophils alongside other cathepsin C-activated neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs), such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE), CatG, and NSP4. In pathological conditions it is thought that PR3 behaves to accelerate inflammation, by enhancing cytokine bioactivity, inactivating anti-inflammatory mediators and by promoting tissue injury (potentially by degrading extra-cellular matrix components like elastin, collagen, fibronectin, and laminins). In addition, imbalances between NSPs and their endogenous inhibitors can contribute towards pathological tissue damage, such as the damage associated with inflammatory lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, and cystic fibrosis. PR3 inhibitors are considered to be useful clinical candidates for anti-inflammatory drug development [150] ...
protein kinase C delta
(Delta subfamily)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • neutrophil activation (GO:0042119) IDA
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IC
  • interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060333) TAS
PKCδ is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its GO immune process associations.
protein kinase C epsilon
(Eta subfamily)
  • macrophage activation involved in immune response (GO:0002281) IEA
  • TRAM-dependent toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (GO:0035669) ISS
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
PKCε is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its GO immune process associations.
protein kinase C gamma
(Alpha subfamily)
  • regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050764) IEA
PKCγ is included in GtoImmuPdb based on the involvement of other PKC isozymes in immune processes.
protein kinase C theta
(Delta subfamily)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
PKC-θ is a novel subfamily PKC found predominantly in hematopoietic cells [18] ...
protein kinase C zeta
(Iota subfamily)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation (GO:0045630) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell cytokine production (GO:2000553) ISS
PKCζ is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its GO process associations.
protein tyrosine kinase 2
(Fak family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
FAK and Pyk2 are phosphorylated downstream of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) to bring about receptor-specific T cell development and activation [52] ...
protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta
(Fak family)
  • marginal zone B cell differentiation (GO:0002315) ISS
  • regulation of macrophage chemotaxis (GO:0010758) ISS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • positive regulation of B cell chemotaxis (GO:2000538) ISS
FAK and Pyk2 are phosphorylated downstream of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) to bring about receptor-specific (e.g. chemokine and integrin receptors) T cell development and activation [52] ...
RAB27A, member RAS oncogene family
(RAB subfamily)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • cytotoxic T cell degranulation (GO:0043316) IEA
  • natural killer cell degranulation (GO:0043320) IEA
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050766) IMP
Small molecule inhibitors of Rab27a-JFC1 binding, termed Nexinhibs (neutrophil exocytosis inhibitors) demonstrate the druggability of Rab GTPases and inhibition of exocytosis of azurophilic granules in human neutrophils without affecting other important innate immune responses, including phagocytosis and neutrophil extracellular trap production. These thus have potential use as an inhibitor of systemic inflammation [131] ...
receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 1
(Receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK) family)
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
RIPK1 and RIPK3 are involved in necroptosis [232,253,291] ...
receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 2
(Receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK) family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway (GO:0034134) IDA
  • toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (GO:0034142) IEA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IDA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045627) IEA
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070423) TAS
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 signaling pathway (GO:0070427) IEA
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathway (GO:0070431) IDA
RIPK2 is involved in innate immune responses, mediating pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial peptidoglycan-sensing NOD1/NOD2 subfamily of innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and signalling downstream from the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of PRRs. Further evidence suggesting an inflammatory role is the targeting of RIPK2 (along with RIPK1/3) by the IAP family E3 ubiquitin ligases (enzymes playing a critical role in innate immunity) [208] ...
receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 3
(Receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK) family)
  • regulation of CD8-positive, alpha-beta cytotoxic T cell extravasation (GO:2000452) ISS
RIPK1 and RIPK3 are involved in necroptosis [232,253,291] ...
sPLA2-1B
(Phospholipase A2)
  • innate immune response in mucosa (GO:0002227) IDA
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) ISS
sPLA2 enzymes catalyze the first step of the arachidonic acid pathway, so are inextricably involved in the production of arachadonic acid for inflammatory mediator synthesis. Excess sPLA2 activity is suggested to contribute to several inflammatory diseases. The sPLA2-1B isozyme has been reported to induce leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production in human neutrophils, using a mechanism independent of arachadonic acid generation [156] ...
spleen associated tyrosine kinase
(Syk family)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • macrophage activation involved in immune response (GO:0002281) ISS
  • neutrophil activation involved in immune response (GO:0002283) ISS
  • leukocyte activation involved in immune response (GO:0002366) ISS
  • serotonin secretion by platelet (GO:0002554) ISS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) IDA
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • positive regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043306) IBA
  • regulation of neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043313) ISS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) ISS
  • regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050764) ISS
SYK plays a key role in coupling activated immunoreceptors to downstream cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis. Mast cell, macrophage and B-cell activation (and release of inflammatory modulators) is disrupted by inhibition of SYK-mediated immunoreceptor signalling. Selective SYK inhibitors are being sought for a number of inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, B-cell lymphoma and asthma/rhinitis [94,231] ...
SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
Src family tyrosine kinases act as general modulators of immune cell signaling, playing diverse signaling functions, both inhibitory and stimulatory, in immunoreceptor and integrin signaling pathways [173] ...
TANK binding kinase 1
(IKK family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
TBK1 belongs to the IKK-kinase family of enzymes. It is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase, and constitutes a key regulatory node for several signaling pathways involved in the innate immune response that lead to induction of type I interferons. Several classes of innate sensors including the TLRs and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like helicases engage TBK1-IRF3 signaling pathways to regulate transcription of type I IFNs. In neuroinflammation TBK1 is involved in TLR-dependent [135] ...
tec protein tyrosine kinase
(Tec family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [29] ...
TXK tyrosine kinase
(Tec family)
  • positive regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060335) IDA
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [29] ...
tyrosine kinase 2
(Janus kinase (JakA) family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • type I interferon signaling pathway (GO:0060337) TAS
  • regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060338) TAS
YES proto-oncogene 1, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
Although primarily recognised for its oncogenic activity, we have iincluded YES1 in GtoImmuPdb based on its expression in cells of the immune system.
zeta chain of T-cell receptor associated protein kinase 70
(Syk family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • T cell migration (GO:0072678) TAS
ZAP-70 has much lower intrinsic enzyme activity than SYK, and expression is restricted to T cells and NK cells [13] ...
Catalytic Receptors
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
4-1BB
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
Targeting of 4-1BB by monoclonal antibody PF-05082566 enhances T-cell function and promotes anti-tumor activity [84] ...
AXL receptor tyrosine kinase
(Type XI RTKs: TAM (TYRO3-, AXL- and MER-TK) receptor family)
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) IDA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • apoptotic cell clearance (GO:0043277) IEA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • neutrophil clearance (GO:0097350) IEA
All three TAM family receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in regulating inflammatory responses through a negative feedback loop. Specifically, AXL-Gas6 signalling is reported to induce autophagy in murine macrophages via inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, an effect which reduces hepatic inflammation in a mouse model [101] ...
CD27
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
A co-stimulatory immune checkpoint molecule. Endogenous ligand is CD70. Interacts with various TRAF adaptor proteins and apoptosis regulatory protein SIVA (SIVA1).
CD30
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
Expressed by activated T and B cells. Interacts with TRAF2 and TRAF5 to elicit downstream signalling events (NF-κB activation). CD30 may protect against autoimmunity by limiting the proliferative potential of autoreactive CD8 effector T cells. CD30 is the target of the approved anti-lymphoma monoclonal antibody drug brentuximab vedotin ...
CD40
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • response to interferon-gamma (GO:0034341) IEA
  • positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes (GO:0048304) IEA
A costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells, required for their activation. Endogenous ligand is CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells.
CIITA
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • response to interferon-gamma (GO:0034341) IDA
  • interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060333) TAS
CIITA is a transcriptional coactivator for the transcription factor RFX5 [245] ...
colony stimulating factor 1 receptor
(Type III RTKs: PDGFR, CSFR, Kit, FLT3 receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
Activation of the CSF1R induces myeloid proliferation, and in the tumour microenvironment this promotes M1 to M2 polarization and accumulation of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). The CSF1R is therefore being investigated as an immuno-oncology drug target [2] ...
death receptor 3
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
In the absence of any other exogenous signals, activation of DR3 causes proliferation of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells [247] ...
death receptor 6
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
Expressed predominantly in the thymus, spleen and white blood cells. May play a role in T helper cell activation, inflammation and immune regulation. Signals via the TRADD adaptor protein to the NF-κB and MAPK8/JNK pathways.
decoy receptor 3
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
The protein product of the TNFRSF6B gene, known as decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), is a soluble endogenous receptor for three TNF family peptide ligands, LIGHT, TL1A and Fas ligand. DcR3 competes for ligand binding with death receptors. DcR3 suppresses LIGHT and FAS ligand induced apoptosis and T cell activation, and increases monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via NF-κB activation [311] ...
DExD/H-box helicase 58
(RIG-I-like receptor family)
  • cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor signaling pathway in response to virus (GO:0039528) TAS
  • RIG-I signaling pathway (GO:0039529) IMP
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IMP
RIG-I is an intracellular sensor that responds to viral nucleic acids and activates downstream signaling, resulting in the induction of the type I interferon response [184] ...
DExH-box helicase 58
(RIG-I-like receptor family)
  • negative regulation of MDA-5 signaling pathway (GO:0039534) IMP
  • negative regulation of RIG-I signaling pathway (GO:0039536) IDA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045088) IDA
  • negative regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045824) IDA
  • positive regulation of MDA-5 signaling pathway (GO:1900245) ISS
  • positive regulation of RIG-I signaling pathway (GO:1900246) ISS
LGP2 binds RNA but does not participate in the signaling pathway that RIG-1 and MDA5 are part of, and is assumed to provide a negative feedback for IFNβ induction by sequestering pathogen-derived RNA.
Fas
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
Fas receptor (CD95) is a cell surface protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, that along with its ligand CD95L, generates a death receptor/death ligand system that mediates apoptosis induction to maintain immune homeostasis. This system is also important in the immune elimination of virus-infected cells, cancer cells and autoreactive T cells. Mouse strains with mutations in Fas or CD95L develop lymphoproliferative conditions, indicating the importance of these proteins to immune cell homeostasis [271] ...
glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • positive regulation of leukocyte migration (GO:0002687) IMP
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
GITR appears to act as a co-stimulatory immune checkpoint molecule. T cell activation induces GITR expression. GITR inhibits the suppressive activity of Treg cells and promotes survival of Teff cells.
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor
(Prolactin receptor family)
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) IEA
herpes virus entry mediator
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • positive regulation of T cell migration (GO:2000406) IEA
HSV viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD) binds to this protein and thereby gains entry to the cell. HVEM binds to several TRAFadaptor proteins to mediate intracellular signalling and activation of the immune response.
integrin, alpha 4 subunit (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)
(Integrins)
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
  • leukocyte tethering or rolling (GO:0050901) IMP
  • diapedesis (GO:0050904) IEA
  • positive regulation of leukocyte tethering or rolling (GO:1903238) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell migration (GO:2000406) IEA
Integrin subunit alpha 4 is the alpha subunit of the α4β1 lymphocyte homing receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of α4 binds tightly to paxillin, a signaling adaptor protein, and this interaction promotes increased cell migration and inhibits cell spreading [102] ...
integrin, alpha L subunit (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)
(Integrins)
  • T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell (GO:0002291) IMP
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) NAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
ITGAL associates with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) integrin and CD18 to form the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) complex. LFA-1 is crucial for leukocyte intercellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling in the immune system. Ligands for LFA-1 are the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) 1-3. ITGAL is the target of the withdrawn psoriasis monoclonal antibody drug efalizumab ...
integrin, beta 2 subunit (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit)
(Integrins)
  • leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002523) IEA
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) NAS
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) IDA
  • toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (GO:0034142) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • cellular extravasation (GO:0045123) IEA
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
ITGB2 is the beta component of the β2 integrins. It forms αβ heterodimers with the CD11 alpha subunits ITGAL (αL aka CD11a forming integrin LFA-1), ITGAM (αM aka CD11b, forming integrin Mac-1) and ITGAX (αX aka CD11c, forming integrin p150/95). These integrins are essential for leukocyte extravasion to sites of infection. Their absence causes a leukocyte adhesion deficiency, which manifests clinically as recurrent severe infections, defective wound healing and neutrophilia [146] ...
interferon α/β receptor 1
(Interferon receptor family)
  • type I interferon receptor activity (GO:0004905) IDA
  • type I interferon signaling pathway (GO:0060337) IDA
  • regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060338) TAS
A subunit of the functional receptor for various interferons (NOT interferon γ).
Interferon α/β receptor 2
(Interferon receptor family)
  • type I interferon receptor activity (GO:0004905) IDA
  • type I interferon signaling pathway (GO:0060337) IDA
  • regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060338) TAS
A subunit of the functional receptor for various interferons (NOT interferon γ).
Interferon γ receptor 1
(Interferon receptor family)
  • interferon-gamma receptor activity (GO:0004906) TAS
  • interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060333) TAS
  • regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060334) TAS
A subunit of the functional receptor for interferon γ.
Interferon γ receptor 2
(Interferon receptor family)
  • interferon-gamma receptor activity (GO:0004906) TAS
  • interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060333) TAS
  • regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060334) TAS
A subunit of the functional receptor for interferon γ.
interferon induced with helicase C domain 1
(RIG-I-like receptor family)
  • cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor signaling pathway in response to virus (GO:0039528) TAS
  • MDA-5 signaling pathway (GO:0039530) IDA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
MDA5 is an intracellualar RNA sensor. It recognizes longer double-stranded RNA sequences than RIG-1. In autoimmunity, MDA5 has been specifically linked with type I diabetes and anti-MDA5 autoantibodies can be detected in patients with certain connective tissue autoimmune conditions [4,112,191] ...
Interferon-λ receptor subunit 1
(IL-10 receptor family)
  • response to type III interferon (GO:0034342) ISS
Interferon-λ receptor subunit 1 is the ligand binding component of the functional heterodimeric receptor for interferons λ1, λ2 and λ3
Interleukin 10 receptor, β subunit
(IL-10 receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
Interleukin 10 receptor, β subunit is a component of the functional receptor heterodimers for interleukins 10 and 22 and for interferons λ1, λ2 and λ3.
Interleukin-12 receptor, β1 subunit
(IL-12 receptor family)
  • positive regulation of memory T cell differentiation (GO:0043382) ISS
  • cellular response to interferon-gamma (GO:0071346) IDA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment (GO:2000330) ISS
This protein is a subunit of both the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokine receptors.
Interleukin 13 receptor, α2
(IL-2 receptor family)
  • negative regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043305) IEA
Interleukin 13 receptor, α2 acts as a high affinity decoy receptor for interleukin 13 that sequesters the ligand away from IL13Rα1 and is involved in down-regulating IL-13 responses in vivo. IL13ra2 null mice exhibit enhanced IL-13 responses [304] ...
Interleukin 17 receptor A
(IL-17 receptor family)
  • granulocyte chemotaxis (GO:0071621) IEA
  • positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response (GO:1900017) IEA
This protein is a common subunit shared by the heterodimeric receptors for interleukins 17 (A, B , C and F) and 25.
Interleukin 17 receptor B
(IL-17 receptor family)
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) IEA
IL17RB is a subunit of the heterodimeric interleukin-25 receptor.
interleukin 17 receptor C
(IL-17 receptor family)
  • granulocyte chemotaxis (GO:0071621) IEA
  • positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response (GO:1900017) IEA
This is a subunit of the heterodimeric interleukin-17 receptor.
Interleukin 17 receptor E
(IL-17 receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
This is a component of the heterodimeric interleukin-17C receptor.
Interleukin-18 1
(Immunoglobulin-like family of IL-1 receptors)
  • T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045063) IEA
Interleukin-18 1 protein (IL18R1) is the ligand binding subunit of the functional IL-18 receptor heterodimer.
Interleukin-1 receptor-like 1
(Immunoglobulin-like family of IL-1 receptors)
  • positive regulation of macrophage activation (GO:0043032) IEA
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) IEA
IL1RL1 (ST2) is the ligand binding subunit of the functional receptor for IL-33. It is mainly expressed on mast cells, eosinophils and other immune cells [88] ...
Interleukin-1 receptor-like 2
(Immunoglobulin-like family of IL-1 receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) IEA
Interleukin-1 receptor-like 2 is one of the subunits of the functional receptor for IL-36.
Interleukin 1 receptor, type I
(Immunoglobulin-like family of IL-1 receptors)
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) IEA
  • positive regulation of neutrophil extravasation (GO:2000391) IEA
This is one of the subunits of the functional IL-1 receptor type I heterodimer.
Interleukin 1 receptor, type II
(Immunoglobulin-like family of IL-1 receptors)
  • negative regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response (GO:1900016) IEA
Interleukin 20 receptor, β subunit
(IL-10 receptor family)
  • negative regulation of type IV hypersensitivity (GO:0001808) IEA
  • inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus (GO:0002437) IEA
Interleukin 20 receptor, β subunit is a component of the functional receptor heterodimers for interleukins 19, 20 and 24.
Interleukin-22 receptor α2
(IL-10 receptor family)
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IEA
IL22RA2 (a.k.a. IL-22 binding protein) appears to act as a high affinity, soluble monomeric decoy receptor for IL-22 capable of neutralizeing the potent antimicrobial activity of IL-22 [72,80] ...
Interleukin 23 receptor
(IL-12 receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • response to interferon-gamma (GO:0034341) IDA
  • positive regulation of memory T cell differentiation (GO:0043382) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment (GO:2000330) ISS
This is one of the subunits of the functional IL-23 receptor heterodimer.
Interleukin 27 receptor, alpha
(IL-6 receptor family)
  • regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes (GO:0048302) IEA
This is the ligand binding subunit of the IL-27 receptor heterodimer, a complex with IL6ST (signal transducing subunit).
Interleukin-2 receptor subunit α
(IL-2 receptor family)
  • inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus (GO:0002437) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IEA
IL2RA is a ligand binding component of the IL-2R complex. This subunit is the molecular target of the approved biologics daclizumab (including daclizumab beta) and basiliximab.
Interleukin-31 receptor, α subunit
(IL-6 receptor family)
  • acute inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus (GO:0002438) IEA
  • T-helper 2 cell cytokine production (GO:0035745) IEA
  • negative regulation of macrophage activation (GO:0043031) NAS
Interleukin-4 receptor subunit α
(IL-2 receptor family)
  • production of molecular mediator involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002532) IEA
  • positive regulation of macrophage activation (GO:0043032) IEA
  • positive regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043306) IEA
  • negative regulation of T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045626) IEA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation (GO:0045630) IEA
IL4R is the common ligand binding subunit shared by the IL-4 receptors type I (receptor for IL-4) and type II (receptor for IL-4 and IL-13). A gain-of-function mutation in IL4R has been associated with atopy, enhanced B cell isotype switching from mu to epsilon and therefore elevated IgE levels [107] ...
Interleukin 5 receptor, α subunit
(IL-3 receptor family)
  • inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus (GO:0002437) IEA
This is the ligand binding subunit of the functional IL-5 receptor complex.
Interleukin-6 receptor, α subunit
(IL-6 receptor family)
  • monocyte chemotaxis (GO:0002548) IC
  • positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis (GO:0002690) TAS
  • acute-phase response (GO:0006953) TAS
IL6R polymorphisms are associated with asthma risk [81] ...
Interleukin-6 receptor, β subunit
(IL-6 receptor family)
  • positive regulation of acute inflammatory response (GO:0002675) IC
This is the common signal transducing subunit shared by members of the IL-6 family of cytokine receptors.
KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase
(Type III RTKs: PDGFR, CSFR, Kit, FLT3 receptor family)
  • mast cell chemotaxis (GO:0002551) IDA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) ISS
  • mast cell degranulation (GO:0043303) IMP
Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor KIT (c-KIT) play an essential part in mast cell biology. In addition to CSF/KIT-mediated regulation of mast cell development, proliferation and survival, KIT is also reported to be involved in the adhesion of mast cells to human airway epithelial cells (a homing and adhesion role), suggesting a mechanism that could be targeted for anti-asthmatic potential [98] ...
lymphotoxin β receptor
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation (GO:0043011) IEA
Interaction of the lymphotoxin β receptor with its ligand is required for the development and organization of the secondary lymphoid organs and is involved in chemokine release (reported to induce interleukin 8 gene expression [51] ...
macrophage stimulating 1 receptor
(Type X RTKs: HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) receptor family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
The role of RON in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
MER proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase
(Type XI RTKs: TAM (TYRO3-, AXL- and MER-TK) receptor family)
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) IMP
  • apoptotic cell clearance (GO:0043277) IEA
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050766) IDA
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
  • neutrophil clearance (GO:0097350) IEA
Mer plays a critical role in regulating self-tolerance mediated between apoptotic cells, dendritic cells, and T cells [28,294] ...
NLRC3
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • negative regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045824) ISS
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IDA
  • negative regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response (GO:1900016) ISS
NLRC3 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system. It has been shown to directly interact with and inhibit the type I interferon response of the intracellular DNA sensor STING to cytosolic DNA, cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), and DNA viruses [183,321] ...
NLRC4
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • activation of innate immune response (GO:0002218) ISS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) ISS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
As part of the innate inflammatory response to invading mobile bacteria, NLRC4 (Ipaf) in macrophages induces a pro-inflammatory response upon detection of cytosolic bacterial flagellin. In contrast, extracellular bacterial flagellin is detected by TLR5 [190] ...
NLRC5
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IMP
  • positive regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060335) IDA
  • negative regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060339) IDA
  • positive regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060340) IDA
NLRC5 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor mediating an innate immune response to viral infection [201] ...
NLRP10
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • dendritic cell migration (GO:0036336) ISS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
NLRP10 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that has apoptotic and anti-inflammatory functions [122] ...
NLRP3
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • negative regulation of acute inflammatory response (GO:0002674) IMP
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IMP
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation (GO:0045630) ISS
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IMP
  • positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell differentiation (GO:2000321) IEA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell cytokine production (GO:2000553) ISS
NLRP3 is a component of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a protein complex which activates caspase-1, and plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation and apoptosis. Drug-like NLRP3 inhibitors are under investigation as novel therapeutics for the treatment of autoinflammatory diseases and neuroinflammation, as an alternative to anti-IL-1 therapies such as rilonacept, anakinra and canakinumab [19] ...
NLRP6
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus (GO:0002862) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034122) IEA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) ISS
NLRP6 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR). It is a member of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NALP) subfamily of PRRs. The presence of NALPs in inflammasomes underlies their involvement in regulating proinflammatory caspases (esp. caspase 1) ...
NLRX1
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • negative regulation of RIG-I signaling pathway (GO:0039536) IEA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • negative regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045824) IEA
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IEA
NLRX1 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that plays a role in host immunity to certain bacterial infections.
nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 1
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070423) TAS
NOD1 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that initiates an immune response to bacterial molecules containing a D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP) moiety.
nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • activation of MAPK activity involved in innate immune response (GO:0035419) ISS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IDA
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) IC
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070423) TAS
  • nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathway (GO:0070431) IDA
  • positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response (GO:1900017) IDA
NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that initiates an immune response to bacterial molecules containing muramyl dipeptide (MDP).
Oncostatin M-specific receptor, β subunit
(IL-6 receptor family)
  • positive regulation of acute inflammatory response (GO:0002675) IC
Oncostatin M-specific receptor, β subunit (OSMR) is a component of two functional heterodimeric receptor complexes:
1. OSMR+ interleukin-6 receptor, β subunit (IL6ST) forms the receptor for oncostatin M
2. OSMR+ interleukin-31 receptor, α subunit forms the recept ...
osteoprotegerin
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
The protein product of the TNFRSF11B gene, osteoprotegerin, acts as a soluble decoy receptor for RANK ligand (RANKL) and for TRAIL. Experimental evidence links the RANK/RANKL signalling pathway with the inflammatory activation of microglial cells relevant in the development of infection-induced perinatal brain injury [140] ...
OX40
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
The OX40/OX40L pair is involved in late T-cell costimulatory signaling and both are transiently expressed following antigen recognition, and blocking OX40/OX40L is reported to prevent the development of disease in in vivo autoimmune and inflammatory disease models [299] ...
receptor activator of NF-kappa B
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • monocyte chemotaxis (GO:0002548) NAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • positive regulation of fever generation by positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion (GO:0071812) ISS
RANK is the receptor for RANK-ligand (RANKL). It is associated with immune cell function and lymph node development, in addition to bone remodeling and repair, thermal regulation, and mammary gland development. Signals to NF-κB and JNK via TRAF adaptor proteins.
RELT
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
A regulatory role in the immune response is suggested by RELT's capacity to stimulate T-cell proliferation in the presence of CD3 signalling.
RTP Type C
(Receptor tyrosine phosphatase (RTP) family)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
CD45 is a high molecular weight cell surface glycoprotein expressed by cells of hematopoietic origin. Alternate transcripts lead to expression of isoforms that differ in their extracellular (ligand binding) domain (potentially facilitating differential and/or cell type specific biological functions [68] ...
TEK receptor tyrosine kinase
(Type XII RTKs: TIE family of angiopoietin receptors)
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) TAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
In inflammation, angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) antagonism of TIE2 initiates a positive feedback loop via forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) activation, which drives further ANG2 expression and enhances vascular remodeling and leakage [144] ...
TLR1
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) IBA
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • toll-like receptor 1 signaling pathway (GO:0034130) IEA
  • toll-like receptor TLR1:TLR2 signaling pathway (GO:0038123) TAS
  • macrophage activation (GO:0042116) NAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
TLR1/2 heterodimers detect and respond to bacterial triacyl lipopeptides [284] ...
TLR10
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) IBA
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • toll-like receptor 10 signaling pathway (GO:0034166) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) IEA
To date, ligands and biological functions of human TLR10 remain unclear. However, evidence suggests it plays a modulatory role with predominantly inhibitory (anti-inflammatory) effects [215] ...
TLR2
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • microglial cell activation (GO:0001774) IEA
  • lipopolysaccharide receptor activity (GO:0001875) TAS
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • signaling pattern recognition receptor activity (GO:0008329) IDA
  • positive regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034123) IDA
  • toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway (GO:0034134) IEA
  • toll-like receptor TLR1:TLR2 signaling pathway (GO:0038123) TAS
  • toll-like receptor TLR6:TLR2 signaling pathway (GO:0038124) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) IC
TLR1/2 and 2/6 heterodimers detect and initiate an immune response to triacylated and diacylated [197] ...
TLR3
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
  • microglial cell activation involved in immune response (GO:0002282) IEA
  • MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002756) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • positive regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034123) IDA
  • negative regulation of MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034128) TAS
  • toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway (GO:0034138) TAS
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) IC
  • cellular response to interferon-gamma (GO:0071346) IEA
TLR3 is an endosomal anti-viral receptor [284] ...
TLR4
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • lipopolysaccharide receptor activity (GO:0001875) IDA
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) IBA
  • B cell proliferation involved in immune response (GO:0002322) IEA
  • nitric oxide production involved in inflammatory response (GO:0002537) IEA
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002756) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • negative regulation of MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034128) TAS
  • toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (GO:0034142) TAS
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
  • macrophage activation (GO:0042116) IMP
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) IC
  • positive regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 signaling pathway (GO:0070430) IEA
  • positive regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathway (GO:0070434) IEA
TLR4 selectively responds to bacterial endotoxin, Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and lipooligosaccharides (LOS) [31,227] ...
TLR5
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • positive regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034123) IDA
  • toll-like receptor 5 signaling pathway (GO:0034146) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
TLR5 induces a pro-inflammatory response upon detection of extracellular bacterial flagellin from invading mobile bacteria [190] ...
TLR6
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • microglial cell activation (GO:0001774) IEA
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) IBA
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • toll-like receptor 6 signaling pathway (GO:0034150) IEA
  • toll-like receptor TLR6:TLR2 signaling pathway (GO:0038124) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
TLR6 forms heterodimers with TLR2 to detect a wide range of bacterial lipopeptides from bacterial cell membranes, and effect an immune response [79] ...
TLR7
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • microglial cell activation (GO:0001774) IEA
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • toll-like receptor 7 signaling pathway (GO:0034154) IBA
  • toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway (GO:0034162) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) IC
TLR7 is an endosomal receptor detecting ssRNA [284] ...
TLR8
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • microglial cell activation (GO:0001774) IEA
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) IBA
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • toll-like receptor 8 signaling pathway (GO:0034158) IDA
  • toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway (GO:0034162) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) NAS
  • positive regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045089) IDA
TLR8 is an endosomal receptor detecting ssRNA [284] ...
TLR9
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) IEA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034122) IDA
  • positive regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034123) IDA
  • toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway (GO:0034162) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) IC
TLR9 is an endosomal receptor detecting viral and bacterial CpG DNA and genomic DNA from some protozoan species [284] ...
tumor necrosis factor receptor 1
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) ISS
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IMP
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050729) ISS
We have included TNFR1 in GtoImmuPdb based on it being a receptor for lymphotoxin-α, a cytotoxic protein performing a variety of important roles in immune system development and regulation [99,202] ...
tumor necrosis factor receptor 2
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IBA
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) IEA
We have included TNFR2 in GtoImmuPdb based on it being a receptor for lymphotoxin-α, a cytotoxic protein performing a variety of important roles in immune system development and regulation [99,202] ...
TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase
(Type XI RTKs: TAM (TYRO3-, AXL- and MER-TK) receptor family)
  • negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034122) ISS
  • apoptotic cell clearance (GO:0043277) ISS
  • negative regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045824) ISS
  • negative regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050728) ISS
TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity [49] ...
Transporters
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
NRAMP1
(SLC11 family of proton-coupled metal ion transporters)
  • T cell proliferation involved in immune response (GO:0002309) ISS
  • T cell cytokine production (GO:0002369) ISS
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) ISS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) ISS
  • response to interferon-gamma (GO:0034341) ISS
  • macrophage activation (GO:0042116) ISS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050766) ISS
NRAMP1 / SLC11A1 appears to be involved in macrophage antimicrobial action against intracellular pathogens, and although its precise mechanism is not fully resolved, evidence indicates its involvement in the activation of phagocytes and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Polymorphisms in the human SLC11A1 gene have been associated with susceptibility to several infections [37,255,257] ...
Peptide transporter 4
(SLC15 family of peptide transporters)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
SLC15A3 and SLC15A4, are preferentially expressed by dendritic cells, especially after TLR stimulation [196] ...
Other Protein Targets
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
absent in melanoma 2
(Absent in melanoma (AIM)-like receptors (ALRs))
  • activation of innate immune response (GO:0002218) IDA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
AIM2 primarily senses cytosolic DNA and initiates formation of an inflammasome to drive IL-1β cleavage and secretion.
advanced glycosylation end-product specific receptor
(Immunoglobulins)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) TAS
  • negative regulation of connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing (GO:1904597) IEA
RAGE is a single chain, membrane bound immunoglobulin type protein [200,244,310] ...
baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2
(Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) protein family)
  • regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034121) TAS
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
  • regulation of RIG-I signaling pathway (GO:0039535) TAS
  • regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045088) TAS
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) TAS
  • regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070424) TAS
Cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins BIRC2 and BIRC3 are required for efficient caspase-1 activation by the inflammasome [154] ...
baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3
(Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) protein family)
  • regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034121) TAS
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
  • regulation of RIG-I signaling pathway (GO:0039535) TAS
  • regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045088) TAS
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) TAS
  • regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070424) TAS
Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) suppress apoptosis thereby promoting cell survival, and participate in the immune response (e.g. negative regulation of the necrosome, inflammasome and ripoptosome. In asthma, cIAPs extend the survival of neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils, prolonging the inflammation. The minor alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms in BIRC3 are shown to correlate with reduced numbers of circulating eosinophils and neutrophils, suggesting a protective effect against the development of asthma[236] ...
CD2
(CD molecules)
  • positive regulation of myeloid dendritic cell activation (GO:0030887) NAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
CD2 is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed on most human T cells and natural killer (NK) cells [313] ...
CD209 molecule
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
DC-SIGN is a pathogen-recognition receptor involved in initiating the primary immune response to various viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as antigen presentation and initiation of the adaptive immune response.
CD28
(CD molecules)
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus (GO:0002863) IEA
  • positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes (GO:0048304) IEA
CD28 is expressed on the surface of T cells and is required for the co-stimulaory signal essential for the activation, proliferation and survival of T cells, and Th2 cell development. CD28 acts in concert with the T cell receptor to stimulate cytokine release (promotes IL-2 production). The B7 proteins CD80 and CD86 on the surface of antigen presenting cells bind CD28.
As a drug target, CD28 modulation is being investigated as a treatment for autoimmume conditions. In 2006 an anti-CD28 antbody with superagonist activity (TGN1412) caused catastrophic organ failure in clinical trial participants due to 'cytokine storm' (multiple cytokine-release syndrome) in response to massive systemic T cell activation and inflammatory response [269] ...
CD300a
(CD molecules)
  • negative regulation of mast cell activation involved in immune response (GO:0033007) IDA
  • negative regulation of MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034125) IMP
  • negative regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043305) IDA
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • negative regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment (GO:0060101) IMP
  • negative regulation of neutrophil activation (GO:1902564) IDA
  • negative regulation of eosinophil activation (GO:1902567) IDA
  • negative regulation of eosinophil migration (GO:2000417) IDA
CD300a is a member of the CD300 family of leucocyte surface receptors [34] ...
CD33
(CD molecules)
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
CD33 (SIGLEC-3) is a myeloid cell I-type (Ig-type) lectin that binds glycans containing sialic acids [92] ...
CD6
(CD molecules)
  • acute inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus (GO:0002438) IDA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response (GO:1900017) IDA
CD6 is a co-stimulatory molecule, predominantly expressed on lymphocytes and associated with autoimmune responses. CD6 interacts with activated leucocyte-cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), found on antigen presenting cells. This interaction induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines [195] ...
CD66e (CEACAM5)
(CD molecules)
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
CD66e is included in GtoImmuPdb because of its role in pathogen recognition.
CD74
(CD molecules)
  • regulation of macrophage activation (GO:0043030) NAS
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
  • positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0090023) ISS
CD74 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein which associates with the MHC class II α and β chains and directs the transport of class II molecules to lysosomal and endosomal compartments [58] ...
CD80
(CD molecules)
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045627) NAS
CD80 (B7-1) is expressed on dendritic cells and activated B cells and monocytes. It is required to provide a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. CD80 works in concert with CD86 to prime T cells. CD80 binds CD28 and CTLA-4 on T cells. It is the interaction with CTLA-4 t ...
CD86
(CD molecules)
  • T cell proliferation involved in immune response (GO:0002309) IEA
  • toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway (GO:0034138) IEA
  • response to interferon-gamma (GO:0034341) IEA
  • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation (GO:0043011) IEA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation (GO:0045630) NAS
CD86 (B7-2) is a type I membrane immunoglobulin. It is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and in association with CD80 provides the costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. CD86 interacts with CD28 or CTLA-4 on T cells. It is the interaction with CTLA-4 that is targeted ...
CREB binding protein
(Non-enzymatic BRD containing proteins)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
CBP30, a selective CBP/p300 bromodomain inhibitor, suppresses human Th17 responses. PMID: 26261308 ...
CS1 (CD319)
(CD molecules)
  • natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0042267) NAS
CS1 is a member of the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) receptor family. CS1 is a membrane glycoprotein primarily expressed on plasma cells. Homophilic interaction (i.e. interaction with itself) of CS1 induces B cell proliferation and autocrine cytokine secretion, thus playing a role in various immune functions.

CS1 is a validated molecular target for the development of novel immunotherapeutics with the potential to treat MM, a malignant disease of plasma cells which remains incurable despite advances in treatment (such as bortezomib, lenalidomide and immunotherapies in clinical trial). Indeed, a combination therapy containing the anti-CS1 mAb elotuzumab (elotuzumab + lenalidomide + dexamethasone), was FDA approved for MM in 2015. CS1 expression is also elevated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [143] ...
C-type lectin domain family 4 member A
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
C-type lectin domain family 4 member E
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • T cell differentiation involved in immune response (GO:0002292) IEA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
Mincle is an FcRγ-associated membrane receptor involved in initiating the innate immune response upon recognition of endogenous and exogenous ligands including Sin3A-associated protein (SAP130), α-mannan on fungal cell walls and mycobacterial cord factor (trehalose-6,6′-dimycolate (TDM)) [41] ...
C-type lectin domain family 6 member A
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) ISS
Dectin-2 is involved in initiating the innate immune response upon recognition of high mannose structures on fungal cell walls. It associates with the ITAM-containing FcRβ adaptor and signals through the Syk, PKCδ, and CARD9-Bcl10-MALT1 pathways to promote cytokine production in response ...
C-type lectin domain family 7 member A
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • leukocyte activation involved in immune response (GO:0002366) IEA
  • phagocytosis, recognition (GO:0006910) IDA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • signaling pattern recognition receptor activity (GO:0008329) IDA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
Dectin-1 is a pattern recognition receptor involved in initiating the innate immune response upon recognition of various β(1,3)-linked and β(1,6)-linked glucans from fungi and plants. It mediates phagocytosis and the production of inflammatory mediators [40] ...
E1A binding protein p300
(Non-enzymatic BRD containing proteins)
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
CBP30, a selective CBP/p300 bromodomain inhibitor, suppresses human Th17 responses. PMID: 26261308 ...
Fc fragment of IgE receptor Ia
(Fc epsilon receptors)
  • positive regulation of type I hypersensitivity (GO:0001812) IEA
  • positive regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043306) IEA
The product of the FCεR1A gene is a single-pass type I membrane protein that is a high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE). It is the ligand binding subunit of the tetrameric FCεRI, exhibiting a Kd of ~0.1nM.
Fc fragment of IgE receptor Ig
(Fc epsilon receptors)
  • positive regulation of type IIa hypersensitivity (GO:0001798) IEA
  • positive regulation of type III hypersensitivity (GO:0001805) IEA
  • positive regulation of type I hypersensitivity (GO:0001812) IEA
  • stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002223) TAS
  • neutrophil activation involved in immune response (GO:0002283) IBA
  • T cell differentiation involved in immune response (GO:0002292) IBA
  • serotonin secretion by platelet (GO:0002554) IEA
  • phagocytosis, engulfment (GO:0006911) IEA
  • neutrophil chemotaxis (GO:0030593) IBA
  • positive regulation of mast cell degranulation (GO:0043306) IEA
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
  • mast cell activation (GO:0045576) IEA
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050766) IBA
  • leukocyte migration (GO:0050900) TAS
heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1
(Heat shock proteins)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060334) IMP
  • regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060338) IMP
heat shock protein 90 beta family member 1
(Heat shock proteins)
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
HSP90B1 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone required for proper folding and cell surface export of newly synthesized Toll-like receptor and integrin (CD11a, CD18 and CD49d) proteins. In its absence TLR responses are ablated, and there is no innate response to microbial stimuli [230] ...
immunoglobulin heavy constant epsilon
(Immunoglobulins)
  • phagocytosis, recognition (GO:0006910) IBA
  • phagocytosis, engulfment (GO:0006911) IBA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IBA
IgE is being investigated as a molecular target in allergic inflammatory conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic spontaneous urticaria. One anti-IgE monoclonal, omalizumab, has already been approved for use in patients with asthma or chronic spontaneous urticaria. Omalizumab binds t ...
interferon gamma inducible protein 16
(Absent in melanoma (AIM)-like receptors (ALRs))
  • activation of innate immune response (GO:0002218) IDA
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
  • negative regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045824) IDA
IFI16 is a sensor for cytosolic DNA which induces type I interferon production via activation of the IRF3/NFκB pathway.
LAG3 (CD223)
(CD molecules)
  • positive regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0045954) IEA
LAG3 (CD223) is a T cell inhibitory receptor and immune checkpoint being investigated as a cancer immunotherapeutic target [8] ...
lymphocyte antigen 96
(Lymphocyte antigens)
  • lipopolysaccharide receptor activity (GO:0001875) IDA
  • toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002224) TAS
  • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002755) TAS
  • MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0002756) TAS
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
  • negative regulation of MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0034128) TAS
  • toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (GO:0034142) ISS
  • TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway (GO:0035666) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IEA
LY96 (MD2) is a binding partner of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), required to initiate an innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The signaling complex also contains CD14 co-receptor [147] ...
membrane spanning 4-domains A2
(Fc epsilon receptors)
  • inflammatory response (GO:0006954) IEA
The protein product of the MS4A2 gene is the β subunit of the FCεRI. It has commonly known as FCER1B. The IgE-receptor (FCεRI), is a tetramer composed of an α, β, and 2 disulfide-linked γ chains expressed on the surface of mast cells and basophils that is crucial for mediating the allergic response. It has been suggested that cytoplasmic FCER1B that is not associated with FCεRI complexes may act as a negative regulator of the signalling pathway to degranulation by sequestering important signalling partners such as the Lyn tyrosine kinase [212] ...
myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen
(Absent in melanoma (AIM)-like receptors (ALRs))
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
MNDA can be detected exclusively in nuclei of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte lineage. Expression is induced by interferon α [36] ...
neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD56)
(CD molecules)
  • interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway (GO:0060333) TAS
CD56 is expressed by neurons, glia, skeletal muscle and natural killer (NK) cells. The CD56bright NK cell subset, predominantly present in secondary lymphoid tissues, are capable of high levels of cytokine production, are enriched at inflammatory sites [67] ...
transmembrane protein 173
(Other pattern recognition receptors)
  • activation of innate immune response (GO:0002218) IMP
  • neutrophil degranulation (GO:0043312) TAS
  • innate immune response (GO:0045087) IDA
STING functions as a major regulator of the innate immune response to viral and bacterial infections. Located in the endoplasmic reticulum, it acts as a pattern recognition receptor, activating type I interferon (IFN) responses upon direct binding to a variety of different cyclic-di-nucleotides (for example of pathogenic origin) [21,42,123-124] ...
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis
(Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) protein family)
  • regulation of innate immune response (GO:0045088) TAS
  • regulation of inflammatory response (GO:0050727) TAS
  • regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway (GO:0070424) TAS
Mouse experiments suggest that XIAP regulates innate immune responses (to Listeria monocytogenes infection) by potentiating synergy between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) through activation of JNK- and NF-κB-dependent signaling [26] ...