Targets Associated to Immuno Processes - Barrier integrity

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Barrier integrity
GPCRs
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
5-HT2A receptor
(5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors)
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
The chemoattractant properties of 5-HT on human eosinophils is mediated by 5-HT2A receptor [4] ...
CCR5
(Chemokine receptors)
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
  • fusion of virus membrane with host plasma membrane (GO:0019064) TAS
  • entry into host cell (GO:0030260) TAS
CCR5 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CCR5 is discussed in relation to immuno-oncology in [1] ...
CXCR4
(Chemokine receptors)
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
  • fusion of virus membrane with host plasma membrane (GO:0019064) TAS
  • entry into host cell (GO:0030260) TAS
CXCR4 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
Enzymes
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1
(Beta-adrenergic receptor kinases (βARKs))
  • viral entry into host cell (GO:0046718) IMP
GRK2 (βARK1) expression and activity are downregulated in lymphocytes from RA patients [12] ...
cathepsin B
(C1: Papain)
  • viral entry into host cell (GO:0046718) IEA
Cathepsins B, H and L have become important therapeutic targets as their proteolytic activity has been implicated in several pathological inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and periodontitis. Therefore, pharmacological inhibitors of these enzymes are in development as novel therapeutics.
SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • entry of bacterium into host cell (GO:0035635) TAS
Src family tyrosine kinases act as general modulators of immune cell signaling, playing diverse signaling functions, both inhibitory and stimulatory, in immunoreceptor and integrin signaling pathways [13] ...
Catalytic Receptors
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
AXL receptor tyrosine kinase
(Type XI RTKs: TAM (TYRO3-, AXL- and MER-TK) receptor family)
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
  • viral entry into host cell (GO:0046718) IMP
All three TAM family receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in regulating inflammatory responses through a negative feedback loop. Specifically, AXL-Gas6 signalling is reported to induce autophagy in murine macrophages via inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, an effect which reduces hepatic inflammation in a mouse model [9] ...
herpes virus entry mediator
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
HSV viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD) binds to this protein and thereby gains entry to the cell. HVEM binds to several TRAFadaptor proteins to mediate intracellular signalling and activation of the immune response.
KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase
(Type III RTKs: PDGFR, CSFR, Kit, FLT3 receptor family)
  • melanocyte adhesion (GO:0097326) ISS
Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor KIT (c-KIT) play an essential part in mast cell biology. In addition to CSF/KIT-mediated regulation of mast cell development, proliferation and survival, KIT is also reported to be involved in the adhesion of mast cells to human airway epithelial cells (a homing and adhesion role), suggesting a mechanism that could be targeted for anti-asthmatic potential [8] ...
MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase
(Type X RTKs: HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) receptor family)
  • entry of bacterium into host cell (GO:0035635) TAS
The leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing protein InlB of Listeria monocytogenes is reported to mediate bacterial entry in to non-phagocytic host cells by binding to the MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET, or hepatocyte growth factor receptor, HGFR) [3] ...
OX40
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
The OX40/OX40L pair is involved in late T-cell costimulatory signaling and both are transiently expressed following antigen recognition, and blocking OX40/OX40L is reported to prevent the development of disease in in vivo autoimmune and inflammatory disease models [19] ...
TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase
(Type XI RTKs: TAM (TYRO3-, AXL- and MER-TK) receptor family)
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity [5] ...
Transporters
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
Other Protein Targets
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
CD209 molecule
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
DC-SIGN is a pathogen-recognition receptor involved in initiating the primary immune response to various viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as antigen presentation and initiation of the adaptive immune response.
CD74
(CD molecules)
  • positive regulation of viral entry into host cell (GO:0046598) IDA
CD74 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein which associates with the MHC class II α and β chains and directs the transport of class II molecules to lysosomal and endosomal compartments [6] ...
CD80
(CD molecules)
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
CD80 (B7-1) is expressed on dendritic cells and activated B cells and monocytes. It is required to provide a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. CD80 works in concert with CD86 to prime T cells. CD80 binds CD28 and CTLA-4 on T cells. It is the interaction with CTLA-4 t ...
CD86
(CD molecules)
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
CD86 (B7-2) is a type I membrane immunoglobulin. It is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and in association with CD80 provides the costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. CD86 interacts with CD28 or CTLA-4 on T cells. It is the interaction with CTLA-4 that is targeted ...
neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD56)
(CD molecules)
  • virus receptor activity (GO:0001618) IEA
CD56 is expressed by neurons, glia, skeletal muscle and natural killer (NK) cells. The CD56bright NK cell subset, predominantly present in secondary lymphoid tissues, are capable of high levels of cytokine production, are enriched at inflammatory sites [7] ...