Top ▲

Targets Associated to Immuno Processes - T cell (activation)

Jump to: GPCR | Ion Channels | NHRs | Enzymes | Catalytic Receptors | Transporters | Other Protein Targets |

T cell (activation)
GPCRs
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
A2A receptor
(Adenosine receptors)
  • negative regulation of alpha-beta T cell activation (GO:0046636) IEA
A2A receptor is discussed in this immuno-oncology review [2] ...
CCR2
(Chemokine receptors)
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0002827) ISS
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046641) ISS
  • positive regulation of T cell activation (GO:0050870) ISS
CCR2 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CCR2 is discussed in relation to immuno-oncology in [2] ...
CCR6
(Chemokine receptors)
  • isotype switching to IgA isotypes (GO:0048290) ISS
  • DN2 thymocyte differentiation (GO:1904155) ISS
  • DN3 thymocyte differentiation (GO:1904156) ISS
CCR6 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. CCR6 is expressed on a variety of immune cells including memory and regulatory T-cells [98,112] ...
CCR7
(Chemokine receptors)
  • establishment of T cell polarity (GO:0001768) IC
  • negative thymic T cell selection (GO:0045060) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell costimulation (GO:2000525) ISS
CCR7 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
CCR9
(Chemokine receptors)
  • CD8-positive, gamma-delta intraepithelial T cell differentiation (GO:0002305) IEA
CCR9 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. Activation of CCR9 by CCL25 plays a key role in leukocyte recruitment to the gut and CCR9 antagonists are being pursued as therapeutic agents for inflammatory bowel disease [201] ...
EP4 receptor
(Prostanoid receptors)
  • T-helper cell differentiation (GO:0042093) ISS
The EP4 prostanoid receptor is one of four receptor subtypes for prostaglandin PGE2. The anti- and pro-inflammatory (and non-inflammatory) activities of this receptor are reviewed in [214] ...
GPR183
(Class A Orphans)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) ISS
  • T follicular helper cell differentiation (GO:0061470) ISS
Gpr183-deficient mice show a reduction in the early antibody response to a T-dependent antigen. GPR183-deficient B cells fail to migrate to the outer follicle and instead stay in the follicle centre [92,149] ...
PAR2
(Proteinase-activated receptors)
  • T cell activation involved in immune response (GO:0002286) ISS
PAR2 receptors have been reported to elicit pain and inflammation through a neurogenic mechanism of action, causing release of substance P, activation of NK1 receptors, and sensitization of TRPV1 voltage-gated ion channels. This action can be negated using a selective NK1 receptor antagonist (L732,138) or a TRPV1 receptor antagonist (capsazepine) [64] ...
Ion Channels
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
P2X7
(P2X receptors)
  • positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0001916) IEA
  • T cell proliferation (GO:0042098) IEA
The P2X7 receptor is involved in NLRP3-type inflammasome formation, and subsequent maturation of IL-1β [113,156] ...
TRPM4
(Transient Receptor Potential channels)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • regulation of T cell cytokine production (GO:0002724) IDA
Expressed on human T cells, mouse dendritic cells, human and mouse monocytes/macrophages, and mouse mast cells [145] ...
Nuclear Hormone Receptors
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
RAR-related orphan receptor-γ
(1F. Retinoic acid-related orphans)
  • T-helper cell differentiation (GO:0042093) ISS
  • negative regulation of thymocyte apoptotic process (GO:0070244) ISS
  • T-helper 17 cell differentiation (GO:0072539) ISS
RORγ inhibitors are under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis [77] ...
Enzymes
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1
(PDK1 family)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
In addition to its role in oncology, in mouse studies, PDK1 is reported to play a part in regulating insulin sensitivity (and inhibiting adipose tissue inflammation), via the Pdk1/Foxo1 pathway and expression of Ccr2 [90] ...
ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase
(Abl family)
  • alpha-beta T cell differentiation (GO:0046632) IEA
  • activated T cell proliferation (GO:0050798) IEA
Included in GtoImmuPdb based on its association with leukemia.
ADAM17
(M12: Astacin/Adamalysin)
  • germinal center formation (GO:0002467) ISS
  • T cell differentiation in thymus (GO:0033077) ISS
The proteolytic activity of ADAM17 (a type I transmembrane metalloproteinase; a.k.a.TNF-alpha converting enzyme or TACE) is involved in the shedding of the extracellular domains of several transmembrane proteins e.g. cytokines (TNFα), growth factors, receptors (IL-6R and TNF-R for example) and adhesion molecules. Cleavage of substrates, including TNFα, IL-6R and L-selectin, produce pro-inflammatory effects stimulating both innate and acquired immune responses. ADAM17 activity is crucial during development (ADAM17 knockout is embryonic lethal), and it has been shown that the soluble IL-6R/IL-6 complex generates agonist-like signals in a process termed IL-6 trans-signaling. The generation and maintenance of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases is driven by IL-6 trans-signaling [34] ...
ADAM8
(M12: Astacin/Adamalysin)
  • positive regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus (GO:0033089) ISS
  • positive regulation of thymocyte apoptotic process (GO:0070245) ISS
ADAM8 is reported to drive acute allergen-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model, and effect negated by ADAM8-deficiency (antibody-induced or gene knockout) [148] ...
Adenosine deaminase
(Adenosine turnover)
  • positive regulation of germinal center formation (GO:0002636) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus (GO:0033089) IEA
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) IDA
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell differentiation (GO:0046638) IEA
  • negative regulation of thymocyte apoptotic process (GO:0070244) IEA
Adenosine deaminase deficiency causes immunodeficiency (ADA deficiency or ADA-SCID). Around 30 known genotypes are associated with this autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. Mitotically active cells such as developing T cells and B cells are susceptible to this deficiency, expaining the resulting ...
BMX non-receptor tyrosine kinase
(Tec family)
  • NK T cell differentiation (GO:0001865) IBA
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [20] ...
B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
(RAF family)
  • CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell differentiation (GO:0043367) IEA
  • CD4-positive or CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell lineage commitment (GO:0043369) IEA
  • regulation of T cell differentiation (GO:0045580) IEA
BRAFV600E- immuno-oncology [2] ...
Bruton tyrosine kinase
(Tec family)
  • positive regulation of type III hypersensitivity (GO:0001805) IEA
  • positive regulation of type I hypersensitivity (GO:0001812) IEA
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) TAS
  • B cell affinity maturation (GO:0002344) IEA
  • regulation of B cell cytokine production (GO:0002721) TAS
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [20] ...
calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV
(CAMK1 family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus (GO:0033081) TAS
CAMKIV has been implicated in the differentiation of Th17 cells, suggesting CAMKIV as a target for therapeutic intervention in Th17-driven autoimmune diseases [99] ...
Caspase 3
(C14: Caspase)
  • negative regulation of activated T cell proliferation (GO:0046007) IEA
Defective caspase 3 expression in immune effector cells my influence susceptibility to Kawasaki disease, an acute vasculitis syndrome affecting small- and medium-sized arteries of infants and children [141] ...
Caspase 8
(C14: Caspase)
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) TAS
Roles of apoptotic caspases extending beyond cell death, for example, mediating cellular immune processes such as inflammasome modulation, necroptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine processing have been reported [120] ...
cathepsin C
(C1: Papain)
  • T cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0001913) IEA
Cathepsin C is a lysosomal cysteine protease constitutively expressed at high levels in lung, kidney, liver and spleen. As well as activity in lysosomal protein degradation, catheposin C also plays a key role in the activation of granule serine proteases in cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells (g ...
cathepsin H
(C1: Papain)
  • T cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0001913) ISS
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEP
Cathepsin H may act as a pro-granzyme B convertase [44] ...
cathepsin L
(C1: Papain)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEP
Cathepsins B, H and L have become important therapeutic targets as their proteolytic activity has been implicated in several pathological inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and periodontitis. Therefore, pharmacological inhibitors of these enzymes are in development as novel therapeutics.
cathepsin S
(C1: Papain)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEP
Due to its role in antigen presentation, inhibition of cathepsin S is expected to cause immunosuppression. Cathepsin S inhibitors are being investigated for clinical efficacy in inflammatory conditions- e.g. RG7625 (Roche) in celiac disease (Phase 1) and Sjogren's syndrome (Phase 2).
complement C1r
(S1: Chymotrypsin)
  • complement activation, classical pathway (GO:0006958) TAS
A protease component of the C1-complex of the classical complement pathway.
complement C1s
(S1: Chymotrypsin)
  • complement activation, classical pathway (GO:0006958) TAS
A protease component of the C1-complex of the classical complement pathway.
C-terminal Src kinase
(Csk family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
CSK is an inhibitory regulator of Src family kinases, a family of protein tyrosine kinases indispensable to the initiation of signal transduction via ITAM-bearing immunoreceptors, and cytokine, growth factor, and pattern recognition receptor signalling. CSK phosphorylates an inhibitory tyrosine residue at the C terminus of Src kinases, leading to autoinhibition. CSK-induced Src kinase inhibition can also be mediated by binding to PEST family receptor tyrosine phosphatases [193] ...
cyclin dependent kinase 6
(CDK4 subfamily)
  • T cell differentiation in thymus (GO:0033077) IEA
Phenotypic abnormalities in CDK6 knockout mice suggest biological roles in addition to mitotic cell cycle regulation. Alternate roles include involvement in hematopoietic function and inhibition of T cell differentiation [68,147] ...
DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit
(Other PIKK family kinases)
  • T cell lineage commitment (GO:0002360) IEA
  • T cell differentiation in thymus (GO:0033077) IEA
  • T cell receptor V(D)J recombination (GO:0033153) IEA
Protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide (DNA-PKcs) principally acts to repair DNA in a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). NHEJ is required for V(D)J recombination (somatic recombination) in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation. DNA-PKc ...
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4
(GCN2 subfamily)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • T cell activation involved in immune response (GO:0002286) ISS
  • positive regulation of adaptive immune response (GO:0002821) ISS
GCN2 is a so-called 'stress kinase'. It phosphorylates serine 51 on the global transcription factor eIF2α upon activation by uncharged tRNA; tRNAs accumulate when amino acid levels are depleted. Phospho-eIF2α blocks translation to cause proliferative arrest.

GCN2 plays several roles in the immune system. It is required for dendritic cell activation and antigen presentation. The GCN2 stress response is required for both optimal proliferation of CD8+ T cells after antigen stimulation, and trafficking to lymphoid organs, i.e. for normal cytotoxic T cell function [191] ...
FYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) IBA
  • activated T cell proliferation (GO:0050798) IEA
Animal models and cell line studies indicate a critical role for Fyn in proximal T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal transduction [144] ...
IL2 inducible T-cell kinase
(Tec family)
  • NK T cell differentiation (GO:0001865) IBA
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) ISS
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) TAS
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [20] ...
indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1
(1.13.11.- Dioxygenases)
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042130) IEA
  • negative regulation of T cell apoptotic process (GO:0070233) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell apoptotic process (GO:0070234) IMP
Accumulating evidence indicates that the IDO1-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a receptor for l-kynurenine, a product of IDO1 catalysis; AHR; P35869) pathway contributes to immune homeostasis by promoting modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. IDO1 expression can be increased by IFN-γ and IL-6 [106] ...
INPP5D
(Inositol polyphosphate phosphatases)
  • immunoglobulin mediated immune response (GO:0016064) IEA
SHIP1 activators are proposed as novel anti-inflammatory agents e.g. rosiptor (AQX-1125) which is in Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials [137,179] ...
IP3 kinase B
(Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases)
  • positive thymic T cell selection (GO:0045059) IEA
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell differentiation (GO:0046638) IEA
IP3 kinase B (ITPKB) as an essential mediator of T cell activation, whose inhibition is considered a novel approach to treat autoimmune disease [125] ...
Janus kinase 2
(Janus kinase (JakA) family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
CEP-33779, a selective JAK2 inhibitor has demonstrated efficacy in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis [180] ...
Janus kinase 3
(Janus kinase (JakA) family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IBA
  • negative regulation of T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045626) ISS
  • negative regulation of T cell activation (GO:0050868) ISS
  • regulation of T cell apoptotic process (GO:0070232) ISS
  • negative regulation of thymocyte apoptotic process (GO:0070244) ISS
Psoriatic skin samples show elevated JAK3 (and JAK1) expression, with signalling predominantly through STAT3 [5] ...
LCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • T cell differentiation (GO:0030217) IMP
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • positive regulation of T cell activation (GO:0050870) IDA
Phosphorylation and activation of Lck is an early and critical step in pre-TCR (T cell receptor) and TCR signalling. Activated Lck phosphorylates immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs of the ζ chain of the TCR leading to recruitment and activation of ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase, and activation of downstream MAPKs and NF-κB. TCR-based signals are required at several stages of T-cell development and it is thought that Lck is the major contributor to TCR signal transduction (with the related Src tyrosine kinase Fyn also playing a role) [144] ...
LYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
LYN is a Src family tyrosine kinase, expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, but also in neural, liver, and adipose tissues. LYN appears to function as a rheostat to modulate B cell signaling, and can be activating or inhibitory in action, depending on the B cell receptor and interacting protein complement present in particular cells [61,63,186] ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7
(TAK1 subfamily)
  • positive regulation of T cell cytokine production (GO:0002726) IMP
  • positive regulation of T cell activation (GO:0050870) IC
TAK1 (MAP3K7) mediates signaling downstream of multiple cytokine receptors and is functionally important in mitogen, immune, and inflammatory signaling pathways [45,165] ...
p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1
(PAKA subfamily)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
PAK1 is reported to modulate a pro-inflammatory PPARγ/NF-κB cascade in intestinal inflammation, that may be relevant in inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer [47] ...
p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 2
(PAKA subfamily)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
Pharmacological inhibition of PAK2 has immunosuppressive effects [140] ...
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IBA
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
PI3Kα is priomarily recognised for its oncogenic function. We have included it in GtoImmuPdb based on its numerous GO immune process associations.
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IBA
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
PI3Kα is priomarily recognised for its oncogenic function. We have included it in GtoImmuPdb based on its numerous GO immune process associations.
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) TAS
  • T cell differentiation (GO:0030217) TAS
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) TAS
The potential for PI3kδ as ta arget in immuno-oncology is discussed in [2] ...
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) TAS
  • T cell differentiation (GO:0030217) TAS
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) TAS
The potential for PI3kδ as ta arget in immuno-oncology is discussed in [2] ...
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) TAS
  • T cell proliferation (GO:0042098) TAS
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) TAS
The role of PIK3CG in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) TAS
  • T cell proliferation (GO:0042098) TAS
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) TAS
The role of PIK3CG in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
phosphodiesterase 5A
(Phosphodiesterases, 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide (PDEs))
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042130) IEA
The role of PDE5A in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1
(Phosphatidylinositol kinases)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
p85α is included in GtoImmuPdb as it is the regulatory subunit of several PI3Ks (e.g. PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ) with roles in leukocyte biology and therefore important for immunity [116] ...
protein kinase C beta
(Alpha subfamily)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
PKCβ is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its GO immune process associations.
protein kinase C delta
(Delta subfamily)
  • immunoglobulin mediated immune response (GO:0016064) IEA
PKCδ is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its GO immune process associations.
protein kinase C theta
(Delta subfamily)
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell activation (GO:0050870) ISS
  • negative regulation of T cell apoptotic process (GO:0070233) IMP
  • positive regulation of T-helper 17 type immune response (GO:2000318) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell activation (GO:2000570) ISS
PKC-θ is a novel subfamily PKC found predominantly in hematopoietic cells [13] ...
protein kinase C zeta
(Iota subfamily)
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation (GO:0045630) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell cytokine production (GO:2000553) ISS
PKCζ is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its GO process associations.
protein kinase N1
(Protein kinase N (PKN) family)
  • regulation of germinal center formation (GO:0002634) IEA
Evidence suggests that PKN1 plays a role in modulation of the NF-κB signalling pathway. Specifically, in Salmonella infection, PKN1 is hijacked by a bacterial effector protein which results in inhibition of NF-κB-dependent gene expression (i.e. inhibition of production of the proinflammatory cytokines that would normally effect bacterial destruction and removal) [69] ...
protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta
(Fak family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
FAK and Pyk2 are phosphorylated downstream of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) to bring about receptor-specific (e.g. chemokine and integrin receptors) T cell development and activation [36] ...
RAB27A, member RAS oncogene family
(RAB subfamily)
  • cytotoxic T cell degranulation (GO:0043316) IEA
Small molecule inhibitors of Rab27a-JFC1 binding, termed Nexinhibs (neutrophil exocytosis inhibitors) demonstrate the druggability of Rab GTPases and inhibition of exocytosis of azurophilic granules in human neutrophils without affecting other important innate immune responses, including phagocytosis and neutrophil extracellular trap production. These thus have potential use as an inhibitor of systemic inflammation [84] ...
receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 1
(Receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK) family)
  • T cell apoptotic process (GO:0070231) ISS
RIPK1 and RIPK3 are involved in necroptosis [159,173,195] ...
receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 2
(Receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK) family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) ISS
  • positive regulation of immature T cell proliferation (GO:0033091) IEA
  • T cell proliferation (GO:0042098) IEA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045627) IEA
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046641) IEA
RIPK2 is involved in innate immune responses, mediating pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial peptidoglycan-sensing NOD1/NOD2 subfamily of innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and signalling downstream from the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of PRRs. Further evidence suggesting an inflammatory role is the targeting of RIPK2 (along with RIPK1/3) by the IAP family E3 ubiquitin ligases (enzymes playing a critical role in innate immunity) [139] ...
receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 3
(Receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK) family)
  • regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0001914) ISS
  • regulation of adaptive immune response (GO:0002819) ISS
  • T cell differentiation in thymus (GO:0033077) ISS
  • regulation of activated T cell proliferation (GO:0046006) ISS
  • regulation of activation-induced cell death of T cells (GO:0070235) ISS
RIPK1 and RIPK3 are involved in necroptosis [159,173,195] ...
sirtuin 1
(3.5.1.- Histone deacetylases (HDACs))
  • positive regulation of adaptive immune response (GO:0002821) IDA
Sirtuin 1 has been suggested as a molecular target for host-directed therapy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by research that shows that activation of sirtuin 1 decreases lung pathology, reduces inflammation, and enhances drug efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis [38] ...
spleen associated tyrosine kinase
(Syk family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) ISS
  • beta selection (GO:0043366) IEA
  • positive regulation of gamma-delta T cell differentiation (GO:0045588) IEA
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell differentiation (GO:0046638) IEA
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046641) IBA
SYK plays a key role in coupling activated immunoreceptors to downstream cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis. Mast cell, macrophage and B-cell activation (and release of inflammatory modulators) is disrupted by inhibition of SYK-mediated immunoreceptor signalling. Selective SYK inhibitors are being sought for a number of inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, B-cell lymphoma and asthma/rhinitis [66,158] ...
SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
Src family tyrosine kinases act as general modulators of immune cell signaling, playing diverse signaling functions, both inhibitory and stimulatory, in immunoreceptor and integrin signaling pathways [115] ...
tec protein tyrosine kinase
(Tec family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [20] ...
TXK tyrosine kinase
(Tec family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) ISS
The TEC family protein tyrosine kinases have been identified as key components of T-cell-receptor activation and signalling. TEC family kinases are expressed predominantly by haematopoietic cells. T cells express ITK, TXK and TEC [20] ...
YES proto-oncogene 1, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
Although primarily recognised for its oncogenic activity, we have iincluded YES1 in GtoImmuPdb based on its expression in cells of the immune system.
zeta chain of T-cell receptor associated protein kinase 70
(Syk family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) TAS
  • T cell differentiation (GO:0030217) NAS
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) TAS
  • beta selection (GO:0043366) IEA
  • positive thymic T cell selection (GO:0045059) IDA
  • negative thymic T cell selection (GO:0045060) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell differentiation (GO:0045582) IDA
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell differentiation (GO:0046638) IEA
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046641) IEA
ZAP-70 has much lower intrinsic enzyme activity than SYK, and expression is restricted to T cells and NK cells [9] ...
Catalytic Receptors
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
BAFF receptor
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • positive regulation of germinal center formation (GO:0002636) IEA
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IEA
A type III membrane bound receptor for B-cell activating factor (BAFF). BAFF enhances B-cell survival and hence regulates the peripheral B-cell population. It is suggested that overproduction of BAFF may enhance the survival of autoreactive B cells, an effect which may contribute in the pathogenesis ...
B cell maturation antigen
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a cell surface receptor for B-cell activating factor (BAFF). It interacts with various TRAF family adaptor proteins to modulate cell survival and proliferation, via NF-κB and MAPK8/JNK signal transduction pathways. BCMA is highly plasma cell-selective for malignant plasma cells from multiple myeloma (MM) patients, and is being investigated as a target for for T-cell redirecting therapies to tackle relapsed/refractory MM. Novel anti-BCMA pharmacological agents in early stage development for MM include monoclonal antibodies and CAR-T cells [72,153,222] ...
CD27
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • immunoglobulin mediated immune response (GO:0016064) NAS
  • positive regulation of T cell differentiation (GO:0045582) IEA
  • negative regulation of T cell apoptotic process (GO:0070233) IEA
A co-stimulatory immune checkpoint molecule. Endogenous ligand is CD70. Interacts with various TRAF adaptor proteins and apoptosis regulatory protein SIVA (SIVA1).
CD40
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes (GO:0048304) IEA
A costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells, required for their activation. Endogenous ligand is CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells.
CD40
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes (GO:0048304) IEA
A costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells, required for their activation. Endogenous ligand is CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells.
death receptor 6
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) ISS
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042130) ISS
Expressed predominantly in the thymus, spleen and white blood cells. May play a role in T helper cell activation, inflammation and immune regulation. Signals via the TRADD adaptor protein to the NF-κB and MAPK8/JNK pathways.
Fas
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • activation-induced cell death of T cells (GO:0006924) IEA
  • B cell mediated immunity (GO:0019724) IEA
  • negative thymic T cell selection (GO:0045060) IEA
Fas receptor (CD95) is a cell surface protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, that along with its ligand CD95L, generates a death receptor/death ligand system that mediates apoptosis induction to maintain immune homeostasis. This system is also important in the immune elimination of virus-infected cells, cancer cells and autoreactive T cells. Mouse strains with mutations in Fas or CD95L develop lymphoproliferative conditions, indicating the importance of these proteins to immune cell homeostasis [184] ...
herpes virus entry mediator
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • negative regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046642) IEA
HSV viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD) binds to this protein and thereby gains entry to the cell. HVEM binds to several TRAFadaptor proteins to mediate intracellular signalling and activation of the immune response.
herpes virus entry mediator
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • negative regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046642) IEA
HSV viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD) binds to this protein and thereby gains entry to the cell. HVEM binds to several TRAFadaptor proteins to mediate intracellular signalling and activation of the immune response.
integrin, alpha L subunit (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)
(Integrins)
  • T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell (GO:0002291) IMP
ITGAL associates with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) integrin and CD18 to form the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) complex. LFA-1 is crucial for leukocyte intercellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling in the immune system. Ligands for LFA-1 are the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) 1-3. ITGAL is the target of the withdrawn psoriasis monoclonal antibody drug efalizumab ...
interferon α/β receptor 1
(Interferon receptor family)
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) IEA
A subunit of the functional receptor for various interferons (NOT interferon γ).
Interleukin-12 receptor, β1 subunit
(IL-12 receptor family)
  • positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0001916) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0002827) IDA
  • positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation (GO:0042104) IDA
  • positive regulation of memory T cell differentiation (GO:0043382) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 17 type immune response (GO:2000318) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment (GO:2000330) ISS
This protein is a subunit of both the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokine receptors.
Interleukin 13 receptor, α2
(IL-2 receptor family)
  • immunoglobulin mediated immune response (GO:0016064) IEA
Interleukin 13 receptor, α2 acts as a high affinity decoy receptor for interleukin 13 that sequesters the ligand away from IL13Rα1 and is involved in down-regulating IL-13 responses in vivo. IL13ra2 null mice exhibit enhanced IL-13 responses [205] ...
Interleukin-18 1
(Immunoglobulin-like family of IL-1 receptors)
  • T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045063) IEA
Interleukin-18 1 protein (IL18R1) is the ligand binding subunit of the functional IL-18 receptor heterodimer.
Interleukin-1 receptor-like 1
(Immunoglobulin-like family of IL-1 receptors)
  • negative regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0002826) IEA
IL1RL1 (ST2) is the ligand binding subunit of the functional receptor for IL-33. It is mainly expressed on mast cells, eosinophils and other immune cells [62] ...
Interleukin-1 receptor-like 2
(Immunoglobulin-like family of IL-1 receptors)
  • positive regulation of T cell differentiation (GO:0045582) IEA
Interleukin-1 receptor-like 2 is one of the subunits of the functional receptor for IL-36.
Interleukin 20 receptor, β subunit
(IL-10 receptor family)
  • negative regulation of type IV hypersensitivity (GO:0001808) IEA
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042130) IEA
Interleukin 20 receptor, β subunit is a component of the functional receptor heterodimers for interleukins 19, 20 and 24.
Interleukin 23 receptor
(IL-12 receptor family)
  • positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0001916) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0002827) IDA
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IC
  • positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation (GO:0042104) IC
  • positive regulation of memory T cell differentiation (GO:0043382) ISS
  • positive regulation of NK T cell activation (GO:0051135) IC
  • positive regulation of T-helper 17 type immune response (GO:2000318) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment (GO:2000330) ISS
This is one of the subunits of the functional IL-23 receptor heterodimer.
Interleukin 27 receptor, alpha
(IL-6 receptor family)
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0002827) IEA
  • regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes (GO:0048302) IEA
This is the ligand binding subunit of the IL-27 receptor heterodimer, a complex with IL6ST (signal transducing subunit).
Interleukin-2 receptor subunit α
(IL-2 receptor family)
  • activation-induced cell death of T cells (GO:0006924) IEA
  • positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation (GO:0042104) IEA
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042130) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell differentiation (GO:0045582) IEA
  • regulation of T cell homeostatic proliferation (GO:0046013) IEA
IL2RA is a ligand binding component of the IL-2R complex. This subunit is the molecular target of the approved biologics daclizumab (including daclizumab beta) and basiliximab.
Interleukin-31 receptor, α subunit
(IL-6 receptor family)
  • T-helper 2 cell cytokine production (GO:0035745) IEA
Interleukin-4 receptor subunit α
(IL-2 receptor family)
  • immunoglobulin mediated immune response (GO:0016064) IEA
  • negative regulation of T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045626) IEA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation (GO:0045630) IEA
IL4R is the common ligand binding subunit shared by the IL-4 receptors type I (receptor for IL-4) and type II (receptor for IL-4 and IL-13). A gain-of-function mutation in IL4R has been associated with atopy, enhanced B cell isotype switching from mu to epsilon and therefore elevated IgE levels [71] ...
Interleukin-6 receptor, β subunit
(IL-6 receptor family)
  • positive regulation of adaptive immune response (GO:0002821) IC
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IMP
This is the common signal transducing subunit shared by members of the IL-6 family of cytokine receptors.
Interleukin-7 receptor subunit α
(IL-2 receptor family)
  • negative regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0001915) IEA
  • T cell differentiation (GO:0030217) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus (GO:0033089) IEA
This is the ligand binding subunit of the functional IL-7 receptor complex.
KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase
(Type III RTKs: PDGFR, CSFR, Kit, FLT3 receptor family)
  • T cell differentiation (GO:0030217) ISS
Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor KIT (c-KIT) play an essential part in mast cell biology. In addition to CSF/KIT-mediated regulation of mast cell development, proliferation and survival, KIT is also reported to be involved in the adhesion of mast cells to human airway epithelial cells (a homing and adhesion role), suggesting a mechanism that could be targeted for anti-asthmatic potential [67] ...
NLRC3
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) IEP
NLRC3 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system. It has been shown to directly interact with and inhibit the type I interferon response of the intracellular DNA sensor STING to cytosolic DNA, cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), and DNA viruses [121,219] ...
NLRP10
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0002827) ISS
  • helper T cell enhancement of adaptive immune response (GO:0035397) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 17 type immune response (GO:2000318) ISS
NLRP10 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that has apoptotic and anti-inflammatory functions [79] ...
NLRP3
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation (GO:0045630) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 17 cell differentiation (GO:2000321) IEA
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell cytokine production (GO:2000553) ISS
NLRP3 is a component of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a protein complex which activates caspase-1, and plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation and apoptosis. Drug-like NLRP3 inhibitors are under investigation as novel therapeutics for the treatment of autoinflammatory diseases and neuroinflammation, as an alternative to anti-IL-1 therapies such as rilonacept, anakinra and canakinumab [14] ...
nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • positive regulation of gamma-delta T cell activation (GO:0046645) ISS
NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that initiates an immune response to bacterial molecules containing muramyl dipeptide (MDP).
OX40
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • T cell proliferation (GO:0042098) ISS
The OX40/OX40L pair is involved in late T-cell costimulatory signaling and both are transiently expressed following antigen recognition, and blocking OX40/OX40L is reported to prevent the development of disease in in vivo autoimmune and inflammatory disease models [200] ...
receptor activator of NF-kappa B
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IMP
RANK is the receptor for RANK-ligand (RANKL). It is associated with immune cell function and lymph node development, in addition to bone remodeling and repair, thermal regulation, and mammary gland development. Signals to NF-κB and JNK via TRAF adaptor proteins.
RTP Type C
(Receptor tyrosine phosphatase (RTP) family)
  • negative regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0001915) ISS
  • T cell differentiation (GO:0030217) ISS
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) ISS
CD45 is a high molecular weight cell surface glycoprotein expressed by cells of hematopoietic origin. Alternate transcripts lead to expression of isoforms that differ in their extracellular (ligand binding) domain (potentially facilitating differential and/or cell type specific biological functions [46] ...
TACI
(Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
Lymphocyte-specific TNF superfamily receptor expressed on B cells. Endogenous ligands include APRIL, BAFF and CAML. Defects in the function of TACI can lead to immune system diseases (e.g. immunodeficiency).
TLR4
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0042088) NAS
TLR4 selectively responds to bacterial endotoxin, Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and lipooligosaccharides (LOS) [22,155] ...
TLR6
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0042088) IC
TLR6 forms heterodimers with TLR2 to detect a wide range of bacterial lipopeptides from bacterial cell membranes, and effect an immune response [59] ...
TLR8
(Toll-like receptor family)
  • immunoglobulin mediated immune response (GO:0016064) TAS
TLR8 is an endosomal receptor detecting ssRNA [189] ...
Transporters
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
ABCB3
(ABCB subfamily)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
TAP1 (ABCB2) and TAP2 (ABCB3) form a transporter that plays an important role in antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules in the adaptive immune response [170] ...
NRAMP1
(SLC11 family of proton-coupled metal ion transporters)
  • T cell proliferation involved in immune response (GO:0002309) ISS
  • T cell cytokine production (GO:0002369) ISS
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0002827) ISS
NRAMP1 / SLC11A1 appears to be involved in macrophage antimicrobial action against intracellular pathogens, and although its precise mechanism is not fully resolved, evidence indicates its involvement in the activation of phagocytes and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Polymorphisms in the human SLC11A1 gene have been associated with susceptibility to several infections [26,174,176] ...
Other Protein Targets
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
advanced glycosylation end-product specific receptor
(Immunoglobulins)
  • regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity (GO:0001914) IDA
  • positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation (GO:0042104) IMP
  • regulation of CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell activation (GO:2000514) IDA
RAGE is a single chain, membrane bound immunoglobulin type protein [136,166,209] ...
B7-H3 (CD276)
(CD molecules)
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IDA
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) IDA
B7-H3 is a costimulatory molecule for T cell activation and IFN-γ production [37,53] ...
B7-H3 (CD276)
(CD molecules)
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IDA
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) IDA
B7-H3 is a costimulatory molecule for T cell activation and IFN-γ production [37,53] ...
BCL2, apoptosis regulator
(B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein family)
  • T cell differentiation in thymus (GO:0033077) IEA
  • CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell lineage commitment (GO:0043375) IEA
The role of Bcl-2 family members in immunity and disease is reviewed in [55] ...
butyrophilin like 8
(Butyrophilin and butyrophilin-like proteins)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
BTNL3 and BTNL8 are two proteins expressed on the surface of human gut epithelial cells that are involved in shaping the constitution of gut resident dendritic γδ T cells [52] ...
butyrophilin subfamily 3 member A1
(Butyrophilin and butyrophilin-like proteins)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • activated T cell proliferation (GO:0050798) IMP
Vγ2Vδ2 (a.k.a. Vγ9Vδ2) T cells bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immunity and play roles in microbial immunity and tumour immunity [128] ...
CD2
(CD molecules)
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) TAS
  • regulation of T cell differentiation (GO:0045580) NAS
CD2 is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed on most human T cells and natural killer (NK) cells [210] ...
CD209 molecule
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042129) IDA
DC-SIGN is a pathogen-recognition receptor involved in initiating the primary immune response to various viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as antigen presentation and initiation of the adaptive immune response.
CD28
(CD molecules)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IDA
  • negative thymic T cell selection (GO:0045060) IEA
  • regulatory T cell differentiation (GO:0045066) IDA
  • regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation (GO:0045589) IEA
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046641) IEA
  • positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes (GO:0048304) IEA
CD28 is expressed on the surface of T cells and is required for the co-stimulatory signal essential for the activation, proliferation and survival of T cells, and Th2 cell development. CD28 acts in concert with the T cell receptor to stimulate cytokine release (promotes IL-2 production). CD28 binds the the B7 proteins CD80 and CD86 on the surface of antigen presenting cells to effect a co-stimulatory signal to T cells. In contrast, CTLA-4 delivers a co-inhibitory signal via CD80/CD86 [4] ...
CD28
(CD molecules)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IDA
  • negative thymic T cell selection (GO:0045060) IEA
  • regulatory T cell differentiation (GO:0045066) IDA
  • regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation (GO:0045589) IEA
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046641) IEA
  • positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes (GO:0048304) IEA
CD28 is expressed on the surface of T cells and is required for the co-stimulatory signal essential for the activation, proliferation and survival of T cells, and Th2 cell development. CD28 acts in concert with the T cell receptor to stimulate cytokine release (promotes IL-2 production). CD28 binds the the B7 proteins CD80 and CD86 on the surface of antigen presenting cells to effect a co-stimulatory signal to T cells. In contrast, CTLA-4 delivers a co-inhibitory signal via CD80/CD86 [4] ...
CD300a
(CD molecules)
  • negative regulation of NK T cell activation (GO:0051134) IDA
CD300a is a member of the CD300 family of leucocyte surface receptors [25] ...
CD3e
(CD molecules)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IMP
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) NAS
  • negative thymic T cell selection (GO:0045060) IEA
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046641) IEA
CD3e is part of the CD3/TCR complex that mediates T-cell receptor signal transduction. Defects in this gene cause severe immunodeficiency [48,177] ...
CD47
(CD molecules)
  • positive regulation of T cell activation (GO:0050870) IDA
CD47 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is reported to bind membrane integrins and the ligands thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). It is a ubiquitously expressed membrane protein that is a 'marker of self', and which is involved in self tolerance. Binding to SIRPα produces an anti-phagocytic signal. CD47 expression is hijacked by cancer cells to evade immunesurveillance and macrophage-mediated removal. Anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies are being investigated as novel immuno-oncology agents [114] ...
CD6
(CD molecules)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IMP
CD6 is a co-stimulatory molecule, predominantly expressed on lymphocytes and associated with autoimmune responses. CD6 interacts with activated leucocyte-cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), found on antigen presenting cells. This interaction induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines [133] ...
CD74
(CD molecules)
  • immunoglobulin mediated immune response (GO:0016064) ISS
  • T cell selection (GO:0045058) NAS
  • positive thymic T cell selection (GO:0045059) IEA
  • negative thymic T cell selection (GO:0045060) IEA
  • negative regulation of T cell differentiation (GO:0045581) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell differentiation (GO:0045582) IEA
CD74 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein which associates with the MHC class II α and β chains and directs the transport of class II molecules to lysosomal and endosomal compartments [41] ...
CD79B
(CD molecules)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
CD79B is a component of the multimeric B cell antigen receptor (along with CD79A and a membrane-bound antibody that acts as the antigen recognition moiety). The CD79A/B component is responsible for signal transduction. The B cell antigen receptor complex is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of various B cell-derived lymphoid cancers [131,168] ...
CD80
(CD molecules)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) IC
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045627) NAS
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046641) IEA
CD80 (B7-1) is expressed on dendritic cells and activated B cells and monocytes. It is required to provide a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. CD80 works in concert with CD86 to prime T cells. CD80 binds CD28 and CTLA-4 on T cells. It is the interaction with CTLA-4 t ...
CD80
(CD molecules)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) IC
  • positive regulation of T-helper 1 cell differentiation (GO:0045627) NAS
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell proliferation (GO:0046641) IEA
CD80 (B7-1) is expressed on dendritic cells and activated B cells and monocytes. It is required to provide a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. CD80 works in concert with CD86 to prime T cells. CD80 binds CD28 and CTLA-4 on T cells. It is the interaction with CTLA-4 t ...
CD86
(CD molecules)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • T cell proliferation involved in immune response (GO:0002309) IEA
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation (GO:0042104) IEA
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) IC
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation (GO:0045630) NAS
CD86 (B7-2) is a type I membrane immunoglobulin. It is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and in association with CD80 provides the costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. CD86 interacts with CD28 or CTLA-4 on T cells. It is the interaction with CTLA-4 that is targeted ...
CD86
(CD molecules)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • T cell proliferation involved in immune response (GO:0002309) IEA
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation (GO:0042104) IEA
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) IC
  • positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell differentiation (GO:0045630) NAS
CD86 (B7-2) is a type I membrane immunoglobulin. It is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and in association with CD80 provides the costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. CD86 interacts with CD28 or CTLA-4 on T cells. It is the interaction with CTLA-4 that is targeted ...
CS1 (CD319)
(CD molecules)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
CS1 is a member of the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) receptor family. CS1 is a membrane glycoprotein primarily expressed on plasma cells. Homophilic interaction (i.e. interaction with itself) of CS1 induces B cell proliferation and autocrine cytokine secretion, thus playing a role in various immune functions.

CS1 is a validated molecular target for the development of novel immunotherapeutics with the potential to treat MM, a malignant disease of plasma cells which remains incurable despite advances in treatment (such as bortezomib, lenalidomide and immunotherapies in clinical trial). Indeed, a combination therapy containing the anti-CS1 mAb elotuzumab (elotuzumab + lenalidomide + dexamethasone), was FDA approved for MM in 2015. CS1 expression is also elevated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [96] ...
C-type lectin domain family 4 member A
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
C-type lectin domain family 4 member E
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • T cell differentiation involved in immune response (GO:0002292) IEA
Mincle is an FcRγ-associated membrane receptor involved in initiating the innate immune response upon recognition of endogenous and exogenous ligands including Sin3A-associated protein (SAP130), α-mannan on fungal cell walls and mycobacterial cord factor (trehalose-6,6′-dimycolate (TDM)) [29] ...
C-type lectin domain family 6 member A
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
Dectin-2 is involved in initiating the innate immune response upon recognition of high mannose structures on fungal cell walls. It associates with the ITAM-containing FcRβ adaptor and signals through the Syk, PKCδ, and CARD9-Bcl10-MALT1 pathways to promote cytokine production in response ...
C-type lectin domain family 7 member A
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • T cell activation (GO:0042110) TAS
Dectin-1 is a pattern recognition receptor involved in initiating the innate immune response upon recognition of various β(1,3)-linked and β(1,6)-linked glucans from fungi and plants. It mediates phagocytosis and the production of inflammatory mediators [28] ...
cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CD152)
(CD molecules)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042130) IEA
  • negative regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation (GO:0045590) IDA
CTLA-4 is expressed almost exclusively on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. It functions as an immune checkpoint providing an inhibitory signal as a balance to stimulatory signals of the immune response i.e. it plays a crucial role in the maintenance of T cell homeostasis [124] ...
cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CD152)
(CD molecules)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042130) IEA
  • negative regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation (GO:0045590) IDA
CTLA-4 is expressed almost exclusively on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. It functions as an immune checkpoint providing an inhibitory signal as a balance to stimulatory signals of the immune response i.e. it plays a crucial role in the maintenance of T cell homeostasis [124] ...
Fc fragment of IgE receptor Ia
(Fc epsilon receptors)
  • positive regulation of type I hypersensitivity (GO:0001812) IEA
The product of the FCεR1A gene is a single-pass type I membrane protein that is a high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE). It is the ligand binding subunit of the tetrameric FCεRI, exhibiting a Kd of ~0.1nM.
Fc fragment of IgE receptor Ig
(Fc epsilon receptors)
  • positive regulation of type IIa hypersensitivity (GO:0001798) IEA
  • positive regulation of type III hypersensitivity (GO:0001805) IEA
  • positive regulation of type I hypersensitivity (GO:0001812) IEA
  • T cell differentiation involved in immune response (GO:0002292) IBA
  • immunoglobulin mediated immune response (GO:0016064) IBA
Fc fragment of IgE receptor II
(Fc epsilon receptors)
  • positive regulation of humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin (GO:0002925) IEA
FcεRII (CD23) is the low-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) with a Kd > 100nM. This protein is a C-type lectin found on mature B cells, activated macrophages, eosinophils, follicular dendritic cells, and platelets. It has no structural similarities with other Fc receptors. FcεRII has functions as both a membrane-bound and as a soluble receptor [94,213] ...
ICOS (CD278)
(CD molecules)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
Inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS) and it's ligand constitute an immune checkpoint. ICOS is a surface receptor on activated T cells that binds its ligand on antigen presenting cells. Ligand-receptor interaction is a T cell activation signal. ICOS is major regulator of the adaptive immune reponse that is structurally and functionally related to CD28 [78] ...
ICOS (CD278)
(CD molecules)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
Inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS) and it's ligand constitute an immune checkpoint. ICOS is a surface receptor on activated T cells that binds its ligand on antigen presenting cells. Ligand-receptor interaction is a T cell activation signal. ICOS is major regulator of the adaptive immune reponse that is structurally and functionally related to CD28 [78] ...
immunoglobulin heavy constant epsilon
(Immunoglobulins)
  • complement activation, classical pathway (GO:0006958) IBA
IgE is being investigated as a molecular target in allergic inflammatory conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic spontaneous urticaria. One anti-IgE monoclonal, omalizumab, has already been approved for use in patients with asthma or chronic spontaneous urticaria. Omalizumab binds t ...
LAG3 (CD223)
(CD molecules)
  • negative regulation of T cell activation (GO:0050868) IEA
LAG3 (CD223) is a T cell inhibitory receptor and immune checkpoint being investigated as a cancer immunotherapeutic target [7] ...
LAG3 (CD223)
(CD molecules)
  • negative regulation of T cell activation (GO:0050868) IEA
LAG3 (CD223) is a T cell inhibitory receptor and immune checkpoint being investigated as a cancer immunotherapeutic target [7] ...
leucine rich repeat containing 32
(Leucine-rich repeat proteins)
  • negative regulation of activated T cell proliferation (GO:0046007) IEA
GARP is expressed on the surface of T regulatory (Treg) cells and binds latent (inactive) TGF-β1. GARP is also involved in the activation of TGF-β1 [42] ...
LILRA4 (CD85g)
(CD molecules)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
CD85g is involved in activation of eosinophils and homeostatic regulation of the innate immunity of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) [32] ...
programmed cell death 1 (CD279)
(CD molecules)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • positive regulation of T cell apoptotic process (GO:0070234) IDA
Immune checkpoint blockade in oncology:
Many types of cancer cells evolve mechanisms to evade control and elimination by the immune system. Such mechanisms can include inhibition of so-called 'immune checkpoints', which would normally be involved in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. An increasingly important area of clinical oncology research is the development of new agents which impede these evasion techniques, thereby switching immune vigilance back on, and effecting immune destruction of cancer cells. Three molecular targets of checkpoint inhibitors which are being extensively pursued are cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Using antibody-based therapies targeting these pathways, clinical responses have been reported in various tumour types, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma [143] ...
programmed cell death 1 (CD279)
(CD molecules)
  • T cell costimulation (GO:0031295) TAS
  • positive regulation of T cell apoptotic process (GO:0070234) IDA
Immune checkpoint blockade in oncology:
Many types of cancer cells evolve mechanisms to evade control and elimination by the immune system. Such mechanisms can include inhibition of so-called 'immune checkpoints', which would normally be involved in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. An increasingly important area of clinical oncology research is the development of new agents which impede these evasion techniques, thereby switching immune vigilance back on, and effecting immune destruction of cancer cells. Three molecular targets of checkpoint inhibitors which are being extensively pursued are cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Using antibody-based therapies targeting these pathways, clinical responses have been reported in various tumour types, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma [143] ...
TIGIT
(Immunoglobulins)
  • negative regulation of T cell activation (GO:0050868) IDA
TIGIT is now considered as an alternate inhibitory immune checkpoint protein which may have potential immunotherapeutic potential, particularly in conditions refractory to more established PD-1 checkpoint inhibition. Given its presence on T cells and NK cells, TIGIT offers an intervention point for targeting both the adaptive and innate arms of the immune system. Clinical development of anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibodies is in preliminary stages. Combination therapies with existing immune checkpoint inhibitors are considered particularly promising. MTIG7192A (NCT02794571 ...
TIGIT
(Immunoglobulins)
  • negative regulation of T cell activation (GO:0050868) IDA
TIGIT is now considered as an alternate inhibitory immune checkpoint protein which may have potential immunotherapeutic potential, particularly in conditions refractory to more established PD-1 checkpoint inhibition. Given its presence on T cells and NK cells, TIGIT offers an intervention point for targeting both the adaptive and innate arms of the immune system. Clinical development of anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibodies is in preliminary stages. Combination therapies with existing immune checkpoint inhibitors are considered particularly promising. MTIG7192A (NCT02794571 ...
TIM3 (CD366)
(CD molecules)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • regulation of tolerance induction dependent upon immune response (GO:0002652) IEA
  • negative regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0002826) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IEA
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042130) IEA
  • negative regulation of T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell (GO:2001189) IDA
TIM3 is an immunoglobulin type protein expressed exclusively on the surface of differentiated Th1 cells [127] ...
TIM3 (CD366)
(CD molecules)
  • adaptive immune response (GO:0002250) IEA
  • regulation of tolerance induction dependent upon immune response (GO:0002652) IEA
  • negative regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response (GO:0002826) IEA
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042102) IEA
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation (GO:0042130) IEA
  • negative regulation of T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell (GO:2001189) IDA
TIM3 is an immunoglobulin type protein expressed exclusively on the surface of differentiated Th1 cells [127] ...