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Targets Associated to Immuno Processes - Antigen presentation

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Antigen presentation
GPCRs
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
5-HT1B receptor
(5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors)
  • G-protein coupled receptor internalization (GO:0002031) IEA
5-HT2B receptor
(5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors)
  • G-protein coupled receptor internalization (GO:0002031) IEA
ACKR2
(Chemokine receptors)
  • scavenger receptor activity (GO:0005044) IMP
ACKR2 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
ACKR3
(Chemokine receptors)
  • scavenger receptor activity (GO:0005044) IMP
  • receptor internalization (GO:0031623) IMP
ACKR3 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
ACKR4
(Chemokine receptors)
  • scavenger receptor activity (GO:0005044) IEA
ACKR4 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
A2A receptor
(Adenosine receptors)
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) TAS
A2A receptor is discussed in this immuno-oncology review [2] ...
β2-adrenoceptor
(Adrenoceptors)
  • receptor-mediated endocytosis (GO:0006898) IDA
β2-ARs are expressed on innate and adaptive immune cells of humans and rodents, and are reported to have an immuno-modulating effect [30] ...
CCR7
(Chemokine receptors)
  • positive regulation of dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation (GO:0002606) ISS
CCR7 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation.
CXCR1
(Chemokine receptors)
  • receptor internalization (GO:0031623) IDA
CXCR1 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CXCR1 is discussed in relation to immuno-oncology in [2] ...
CXCR2
(Chemokine receptors)
  • receptor internalization (GO:0031623) IDA
CXCR2 is one of more than 20 distinct chemokine receptors expressed in human leukocytes. Chemokines primarily act to promote leukocyte chemotaxis to sites of inflammation. CXCR2 is discussed in relation to immuno-oncology in [2] ...
PAR2
(Proteinase-activated receptors)
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment (GO:0060100) IDA
PAR2 receptors have been reported to elicit pain and inflammation through a neurogenic mechanism of action, causing release of substance P, activation of NK1 receptors, and sensitization of TRPV1 voltage-gated ion channels. This action can be negated using a selective NK1 receptor antagonist (L732,138) or a TRPV1 receptor antagonist (capsazepine) [34] ...
Ion Channels
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
P2X7
(P2X receptors)
  • phagolysosome assembly (GO:0001845) IEA
The P2X7 receptor is involved in NLRP3-type inflammasome formation, and subsequent maturation of IL-1β [53,67] ...
Nuclear Hormone Receptors
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
Liver X receptor-α
(1H. Liver X receptor-like receptors)
  • apoptotic cell clearance (GO:0043277) IMP
  • negative regulation of pinocytosis (GO:0048550) IMP
Liver X receptors are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses- drug target for cholesterol homeostasis (hypercholesterolaemia), inflammation, and with potential therapeutic effects in neurodegenerative diseases [88] ...
Liver X receptor-β
(1H. Liver X receptor-like receptors)
  • negative regulation of pinocytosis (GO:0048550) IMP
Liver X receptors are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses- drug target for cholesterol homeostasis (hypercholesterolaemia), inflammation, and with potential therapeutic effects in neurodegenerative diseases [88] ...
Enzymes
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase
(Abl family)
  • regulation of endocytosis (GO:0030100) TAS
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
Included in GtoImmuPdb based on its association with leukemia.
autotaxin
(LPA synthesis)
  • scavenger receptor activity (GO:0005044) IEA
Autotaxin is up-regulated in many inflammatory conditions, including cancer, arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. The product of autotaxin activity, LPA, has proliferative, chemotactic and angiogenic actions. Inhibitors of the ATX-LPA axis are being investigated as novel pharmaceuticals [21] ...
beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1
(Beta-adrenergic receptor kinases (βARKs))
  • receptor internalization (GO:0031623) IDA
GRK2 (βARK1) expression and activity are downregulated in lymphocytes from RA patients [55] ...
cathepsin H
(C1: Papain)
  • antigen processing and presentation (GO:0019882) TAS
Cathepsin H may act as a pro-granzyme B convertase [27] ...
cathepsin L
(C1: Papain)
  • antigen processing and presentation (GO:0019882) TAS
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II (GO:0019886) TAS
Cathepsins B, H and L have become important therapeutic targets as their proteolytic activity has been implicated in several pathological inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and periodontitis. Therefore, pharmacological inhibitors of these enzymes are in development as novel therapeutics.
cathepsin S
(C1: Papain)
  • antigen processing and presentation (GO:0019882) TAS
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II (GO:0019886) TAS
  • antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen (GO:0048002) IDA
Due to its role in antigen presentation, inhibition of cathepsin S is expected to cause immunosuppression. Cathepsin S inhibitors are being investigated for clinical efficacy in inflammatory conditions- e.g. RG7625 (Roche) in celiac disease (Phase 1) and Sjogren's syndrome (Phase 2).
conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase
(IKK family)
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent (GO:0002479) TAS
Ikkα is one of the catalytic subunits of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, an upstream component of the NF-κB signal transduction cascade; NF-κB signaling being involved in propagating the cellular response to inflammation. IKK frees NF-κB from its inhibitory interaction with IκBα (inhibitor of kappa B), allowing NF-κB translocation to the nucleus where it modulates transcriptional activity. Additional functions of Ikkα beyond NF-κB activation are reviewed in [42] ...
C-terminal Src kinase
(Csk family)
  • negative regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050765) IEA
CSK is an inhibitory regulator of Src family kinases, a family of protein tyrosine kinases indispensable to the initiation of signal transduction via ITAM-bearing immunoreceptors, and cytokine, growth factor, and pattern recognition receptor signalling. CSK phosphorylates an inhibitory tyrosine residue at the C terminus of Src kinases, leading to autoinhibition. CSK-induced Src kinase inhibition can also be mediated by binding to PEST family receptor tyrosine phosphatases [84] ...
elastase, neutrophil expressed
(S1: Chymotrypsin)
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) IBA
Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a serine proteinase with broad substrate specificity. It is stored in azurophil granules within neutrophils and is involved primarily in host defence. However, in addition to attacking proteins on invading microorganisms, secreted NE also hydrolyzes proteins of the host e ...
FGR proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050764) ISS
Fgr may be involved in neutrophil migration, potentially via binding to intergrins [10] ...
FYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
Animal models and cell line studies indicate a critical role for Fyn in proximal T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal transduction [64] ...
Haem oxygenase 1
(Haem oxygenase)
  • low-density lipoprotein particle clearance (GO:0034383) TAS
Heme oxygenase (HO) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of heme, catalyzing the oxidative cleavage of heme (Fe-protoporphyrin-IX) to render equimolar amounts of biliverdin, ferrous iron (Fe2+), and carbon monoxide (CO).

Heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) is a Nrf2-regulated gene, whose expression is upregulated as a cytoprotective mechanism in response to cellular stresses including inflammation, ischemia, hypoxia, hyperoxia, hyperthermia, or radiation.

HO1 has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects in vascular cells, playing an important role in the prevention of vascular inflammation and atherogenesis (reviewed in [6] ...
HCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050764) IMP
Hck is thought to be involved in neutrophil migration, potentially via binding to intergrins [10] ...
inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta
(IKK family)
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent (GO:0002479) TAS
Iκβ kinase β (IKK-2) is the pivotal enzyme component of the Iκβ kinase (IKK) complex, a complex crucial in regulating expression and activation of inflammatory mediators in airway epithelium. IKK-2 is an attractive target for development of pharmaceutical inhibitors with antiinflammatory action as treatments for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [3,12,14,74] ...
LYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
LYN is a Src family tyrosine kinase, expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, but also in neural, liver, and adipose tissues. LYN appears to function as a rheostat to modulate B cell signaling, and can be activating or inhibitory in action, depending on the B cell receptor and interacting protein complement present in particular cells [32-33,81] ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
(ERK subfamily)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • caveolin-mediated endocytosis (GO:0072584) TAS
In endothelial cells of the vasculature, and in activated human mast cells, ERK serves as an anti-inflammatory signal that suppresses production of pro-inflammatory mediators [47,58] ...
p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1
(PAKA subfamily)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
PAK1 is reported to modulate a pro-inflammatory PPARγ/NF-κB cascade in intestinal inflammation, that may be relevant in inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer [28] ...
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
PI3Kα is priomarily recognised for its oncogenic function. We have included it in GtoImmuPdb based on its numerous GO immune process associations.
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
PI3Kα is priomarily recognised for its oncogenic function. We have included it in GtoImmuPdb based on its numerous GO immune process associations.
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • endocytosis (GO:0006897) IEA
The role of PIK3CG in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma
(Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase family)
  • endocytosis (GO:0006897) IEA
The role of PIK3CG in immuno-oncology is reviewed in [2] ...
phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1
(Phosphatidylinositol kinases)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
p85α is included in GtoImmuPdb as it is the regulatory subunit of several PI3Ks (e.g. PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ) with roles in leukocyte biology and therefore important for immunity [57] ...
PLCγ1
(Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
Two structurally similar isoforms of PLCγ are expressed by mast cells (PLCγ1 and PLCγ2). Both are important enzymes in the integrated signalling pathways leading to mast cell activation [37,71] ...
PLCγ2
(Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C)
  • positive regulation of receptor internalization (GO:0002092) IEA
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
Two structurally similar isoforms of PLCγ are expressed by mast cells (PLCγ1 and PLCγ2). Both are important enzymes in the integrated signalling pathways leading to mast cell activation [37,71] ...
proteasome subunit beta 8
(T1: Proteasome)
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent (GO:0002479) TAS
PSMB8 is a component of the immunoproteasome [31] ...
proteinase 3
(S1: Chymotrypsin)
  • negative regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050765) IDA
Proteinase 3 (PR3), called myeloblastin when it was first identified, is an abundant serine protease found principally in neutrophil granules (but is also found on the surface of quiescent human neutrophils from peripheral blood). It is stored in the primary granules of circulating neutrophils alongside other cathepsin C-activated neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs), such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE), CatG, and NSP4. In pathological conditions it is thought that PR3 behaves to accelerate inflammation, by enhancing cytokine bioactivity, inactivating anti-inflammatory mediators and by promoting tissue injury (potentially by degrading extra-cellular matrix components like elastin, collagen, fibronectin, and laminins). In addition, imbalances between NSPs and their endogenous inhibitors can contribute towards pathological tissue damage, such as the damage associated with inflammatory lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, and cystic fibrosis. PR3 inhibitors are considered to be useful clinical candidates for anti-inflammatory drug development [49] ...
protein kinase C delta
(Delta subfamily)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
PKCδ is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its GO immune process associations.
protein kinase C epsilon
(Eta subfamily)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
PKCε is included in GtoImmuPdb based on its GO immune process associations.
protein kinase C gamma
(Alpha subfamily)
  • regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050764) IEA
PKCγ is included in GtoImmuPdb based on the involvement of other PKC isozymes in immune processes.
protein tyrosine kinase 2
(Fak family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
FAK and Pyk2 are phosphorylated downstream of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) to bring about receptor-specific T cell development and activation [24] ...
RAB27A, member RAS oncogene family
(RAB subfamily)
  • antigen processing and presentation (GO:0019882) IMP
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050766) IMP
Small molecule inhibitors of Rab27a-JFC1 binding, termed Nexinhibs (neutrophil exocytosis inhibitors) demonstrate the druggability of Rab GTPases and inhibition of exocytosis of azurophilic granules in human neutrophils without affecting other important innate immune responses, including phagocytosis and neutrophil extracellular trap production. These thus have potential use as an inhibitor of systemic inflammation [43] ...
spleen associated tyrosine kinase
(Syk family)
  • positive regulation of receptor internalization (GO:0002092) IEA
  • receptor internalization (GO:0031623) ISS
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050764) ISS
SYK plays a key role in coupling activated immunoreceptors to downstream cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis. Mast cell, macrophage and B-cell activation (and release of inflammatory modulators) is disrupted by inhibition of SYK-mediated immunoreceptor signalling. Selective SYK inhibitors are being sought for a number of inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, B-cell lymphoma and asthma/rhinitis [36,68] ...
SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
  • regulation of caveolin-mediated endocytosis (GO:2001286) IMP
Src family tyrosine kinases act as general modulators of immune cell signaling, playing diverse signaling functions, both inhibitory and stimulatory, in immunoreceptor and integrin signaling pathways [56] ...
YES proto-oncogene 1, Src family tyrosine kinase
(Src family)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
Although primarily recognised for its oncogenic activity, we have iincluded YES1 in GtoImmuPdb based on its expression in cells of the immune system.
Catalytic Receptors
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
AXL receptor tyrosine kinase
(Type XI RTKs: TAM (TYRO3-, AXL- and MER-TK) receptor family)
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) IDA
  • apoptotic cell clearance (GO:0043277) IEA
  • positive regulation of pinocytosis (GO:0048549) IMP
  • neutrophil clearance (GO:0097350) IEA
All three TAM family receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in regulating inflammatory responses through a negative feedback loop. Specifically, AXL-Gas6 signalling is reported to induce autophagy in murine macrophages via inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, an effect which reduces hepatic inflammation in a mouse model [39] ...
integrin, alpha 4 subunit (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)
(Integrins)
  • clathrin-dependent extracellular exosome endocytosis (GO:1990771) IEA
Integrin subunit alpha 4 is the alpha subunit of the α4β1 lymphocyte homing receptor. The cytoplasmic domain of α4 binds tightly to paxillin, a signaling adaptor protein, and this interaction promotes increased cell migration and inhibits cell spreading [40] ...
integrin, alpha L subunit (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)
(Integrins)
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) IEA
ITGAL associates with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) integrin and CD18 to form the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) complex. LFA-1 is crucial for leukocyte intercellular adhesion and costimulatory signaling in the immune system. Ligands for LFA-1 are the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) 1-3. ITGAL is the target of the withdrawn psoriasis monoclonal antibody drug efalizumab ...
integrin, beta 2 subunit (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit)
(Integrins)
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) IEA
  • receptor internalization (GO:0031623) ISS
ITGB2 is the beta component of the β2 integrins. It forms αβ heterodimers with the CD11 alpha subunits ITGAL (αL aka CD11a forming integrin LFA-1), ITGAM (αM aka CD11b, forming integrin Mac-1) and ITGAX (αX aka CD11c, forming integrin p150/95). These integrins are essential for leukocyte extravasion to sites of infection. Their absence causes a leukocyte adhesion deficiency, which manifests clinically as recurrent severe infections, defective wound healing and neutrophilia [48] ...
MER proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase
(Type XI RTKs: TAM (TYRO3-, AXL- and MER-TK) receptor family)
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) IMP
  • apoptotic cell clearance (GO:0043277) IEA
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050766) IDA
  • neutrophil clearance (GO:0097350) IEA
Mer plays a critical role in regulating self-tolerance mediated between apoptotic cells, dendritic cells, and T cells [13,85] ...
nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 1
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • positive regulation of dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation (GO:0002606) ISS
NOD1 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that initiates an immune response to bacterial molecules containing a D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP) moiety.
nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2
(NOD-like receptor family)
  • positive regulation of dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation (GO:0002606) ISS
NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that initiates an immune response to bacterial molecules containing muramyl dipeptide (MDP).
TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase
(Type XI RTKs: TAM (TYRO3-, AXL- and MER-TK) receptor family)
  • apoptotic cell clearance (GO:0043277) ISS
TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity [23] ...
Transporters
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
ABCB3
(ABCB subfamily)
  • antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I (GO:0002474) TAS
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent (GO:0002479) TAS
  • antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class Ib via ER pathway, TAP-dependent (GO:0002489) IMP
  • antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I (GO:0019885) IDA
  • peptide antigen transport (GO:0046968) IDA
TAP1 (ABCB2) and TAP2 (ABCB3) form a transporter that plays an important role in antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules in the adaptive immune response [72] ...
NRAMP1
(SLC11 family of proton-coupled metal ion transporters)
  • positive regulation of dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation (GO:0002606) ISS
  • phagocytosis (GO:0006909) ISS
  • antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen (GO:0048002) ISS
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050766) ISS
NRAMP1 / SLC11A1 appears to be involved in macrophage antimicrobial action against intracellular pathogens, and although its precise mechanism is not fully resolved, evidence indicates its involvement in the activation of phagocytes and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Polymorphisms in the human SLC11A1 gene have been associated with susceptibility to several infections [17,75-76] ...
Other Protein Targets
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Process Association Comments GO Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
Bcl-2-like 1
(B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein family)
  • endocytosis (GO:0006897) IEA
The role of Bcl-2 family members in immunity and disease is reviewed in [5] ...
CD209 molecule
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • endocytosis (GO:0006897) IEA
  • antigen processing and presentation (GO:0019882) NAS
  • peptide antigen transport (GO:0046968) NAS
DC-SIGN is a pathogen-recognition receptor involved in initiating the primary immune response to various viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as antigen presentation and initiation of the adaptive immune response.
CD300a
(CD molecules)
  • negative regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment (GO:0060101) IMP
CD300a is a member of the CD300 family of leucocyte surface receptors [15] ...
CD47
(CD molecules)
  • opsonization (GO:0008228) IEA
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050766) IEA
CD47 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is reported to bind membrane integrins and the ligands thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). It is a ubiquitously expressed membrane protein that is a 'marker of self', and which is involved in self tolerance. Binding to SIRPα produces an anti-phagocytic signal. CD47 expression is hijacked by cancer cells to evade immunesurveillance and macrophage-mediated removal. Anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies are being investigated as novel immuno-oncology agents [54] ...
CD6
(CD molecules)
  • scavenger receptor activity (GO:0005044) IEA
CD6 is a co-stimulatory molecule, predominantly expressed on lymphocytes and associated with autoimmune responses. CD6 interacts with activated leucocyte-cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), found on antigen presenting cells. This interaction induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines [61] ...
CD74
(CD molecules)
  • positive regulation of dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation (GO:0002606) IEA
  • antigen processing and presentation of endogenous antigen (GO:0019883) NAS
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II (GO:0019886) TAS
CD74 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein which associates with the MHC class II α and β chains and directs the transport of class II molecules to lysosomal and endosomal compartments [26] ...
C-type lectin domain family 7 member A
(C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs))
  • phagocytosis, recognition (GO:0006910) IDA
Dectin-1 is a pattern recognition receptor involved in initiating the innate immune response upon recognition of various β(1,3)-linked and β(1,6)-linked glucans from fungi and plants. It mediates phagocytosis and the production of inflammatory mediators [18] ...
Fc fragment of IgE receptor Ig
(Fc epsilon receptors)
  • phagocytosis, engulfment (GO:0006911) IEA
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II (GO:0019886) IBA
  • receptor internalization (GO:0031623) ISS
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I (GO:0042590) IBA
  • positive regulation of phagocytosis (GO:0050766) IBA
heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1
(Heat shock proteins)
  • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis (GO:0038096) TAS
heat shock protein 90 beta family member 1
(Heat shock proteins)
  • receptor-mediated endocytosis (GO:0006898) TAS
HSP90B1 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone required for proper folding and cell surface export of newly synthesized Toll-like receptor and integrin (CD11a, CD18 and CD49d) proteins. In its absence TLR responses are ablated, and there is no innate response to microbial stimuli [66] ...
immunoglobulin heavy constant epsilon
(Immunoglobulins)
  • phagocytosis, recognition (GO:0006910) IBA
  • phagocytosis, engulfment (GO:0006911) IBA
IgE is being investigated as a molecular target in allergic inflammatory conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic spontaneous urticaria. One anti-IgE monoclonal, omalizumab, has already been approved for use in patients with asthma or chronic spontaneous urticaria. Omalizumab binds t ...
LAG3 (CD223)
(CD molecules)
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II (GO:0019886) TAS
LAG3 (CD223) is a T cell inhibitory receptor and immune checkpoint being investigated as a cancer immunotherapeutic target [4] ...
LAG3 (CD223)
(CD molecules)
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II (GO:0019886) TAS
LAG3 (CD223) is a T cell inhibitory receptor and immune checkpoint being investigated as a cancer immunotherapeutic target [4] ...