FPR2/ALX | Formylpeptide receptors | IUPHAR Guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

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  Target has curated data in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 223

Nomenclature: FPR2/ALX

Family: Formylpeptide receptors, Leukotriene receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 351 19q13.3-q13.4 FPR2 formyl peptide receptor 2 4,69
Mouse 7 351 17 A3.1 Fpr2 formyl peptide receptor 2 34,96
Rat 7 351 1q12 Fpr2 formyl peptide receptor 2 14,68
Previous and Unofficial Names
ALXR | FMLPX | FPRH1 | LXA4R | ALX | FPRH2 | FPRL1 | RFP | formyl peptide receptor-like 1 | formyl peptide receptor 2 | formyl peptide receptor, related sequence 2 | Fpr-rs2 | ALX/FPR2 | FPR2A
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB fpr2_human (Hs), fpr2_human (Hs), fpr2_mouse (Mm), fpr2_mouse (Mm)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
annexin I {Sp: Human} , annexin I {Sp: Mouse} , annexin I {Sp: Rat}
aspirin triggered lipoxin A4
aspirin-triggered resolvin D1
CRAMP {Sp: Mouse}
humanin {Sp: Human}
LL-37 {Sp: Human}
resolvin D1
serum amyloid A {Sp: Human}
Potency order of endogenous ligands
LXA4 = aspirin triggered lipoxin A4 = ATLa2 = resolvin D1 > LTC4 = LTD4 >> 15-deoxy-LXA4 >> fMet-Leu-Phe  [17,26,29,39,96]

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
WKYMVm Hs Full agonist 10.1 pKd 15,43,45,58
pKd 10.1 [15,43,45,58]
[3H]LXA4 Hs Full agonist 9.1 – 9.3 pKd 26,28
pKd 9.1 – 9.3 (Kd 7x10-10 – 5x10-10 M) [26,28]
LXA4 Hs Partial agonist 8.8 – 9.3 pKd 26,28
pKd 8.8 – 9.3 [26,28]
[3H]LXA4 Mm Full agonist 8.8 pKd 96
pKd 8.8 (Kd 1.5x10-9 M) [96]
[3H]LXA4 Rn Full agonist 8.3 pKd 14
pKd 8.3 (Kd 5x10-9 M) [14]
annexin I {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 6.5 pKd 75
pKd 6.5 [75]
fMet-Leu-Phe Hs Full agonist 6.4 pKd 81
pKd 6.4 [81]
[125I-Tyr]Ac2-26 Rn Full agonist 6.1 pKd 14
pKd 6.1 (Kd 8.2x10-7 M) [14]
[125I-Tyr]Ac2-26 Hs Agonist 5.9 pKd 75
pKd 5.9 (Kd 1.3x10-6 M) [75]
CGEN-855A Hs Full agonist 7.3 pKi 46
pKi 7.3 (Ki 5.41x10-8 M) [46]
LXA4 Hs Full agonist ~12.0 pEC50 54
pEC50 ~12.0 (EC50 ~1.1x10-12 M) [54]
resolvin D1 Hs Full agonist ~11.9 pEC50 54
pEC50 ~11.9 (EC50 ~1.2x10-12 M) [54]
RvD1-ME Hs Full agonist 11.4 pEC50 53
pEC50 11.4 (EC50 3.7x10-12 M) [53]
aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 Hs Full agonist 11.1 pEC50 53
pEC50 11.1 [53]
WKYMVm Mm Full agonist 9.0 – 10.1 pEC50 43,45
pEC50 9.0 – 10.1 [43,45]
BMS-986235 Mm Agonist 9.3 pEC50 2
pEC50 9.3 (EC50 5x10-10 M) [2]
sCKβ8-1 Hs Full agonist 8.9 – 9.1 pEC50 24
pEC50 8.9 – 9.1 [24]
MMK-1 Hs Full agonist 8.7 pEC50 47,51
pEC50 8.7 [47,51]
PSMα3 Hs Full agonist 8.7 pEC50 52
pEC50 8.7 [52]
ACT-389949 Hs Agonist 8.5 pEC50 92
pEC50 8.5 (EC50 3x10-9 M) [92]
Description: FPR2/ALX internalization into monocytes.
humanin {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.5 pEC50 41
pEC50 8.5 [41]
BMS-986235 Hs Agonist 8.3 pEC50 2
pEC50 8.3 (EC50 5x10-9 M) [2]
fMet-Met-Tyr-Ala-Leu-Phe Hs Full agonist 7.8 pEC50 82
pEC50 7.8 [82]
SHAAGtide Hs Full agonist 7.7 pEC50 24,66
pEC50 7.7 [24,66]
pyrazolone, 1 Hs Full agonist 7.4 pEC50 9
pEC50 7.4 [9]
T21/DP107 Hs Full agonist 7.3 pEC50 94
pEC50 7.3 (EC50 5x10-8 M) [94]
uPar fragment Hs Full agonist 7.1 pEC50 83
pEC50 7.1 [83]
amyloid β {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 7.0 pEC50 59,97
pEC50 7.0 [59,97]
pyrazolone, 1 Mm Full agonist 6.9 pEC50 43
pEC50 6.9 [43]
CRAMP {Sp: Mouse} Mm Full agonist 6.7 – 7.0 pEC50 56
pEC50 6.7 – 7.0 [56]
fMet-Ile-Val-Thr-Leu-Phe Hs Full agonist 6.7 pEC50 82
pEC50 6.7 [82]
serum amyloid A {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 6.6 pEC50 95
pEC50 6.6 (EC50 2.5x10-7 M) [95]
humanin {Sp: Human} Mm Full agonist 6.0 – 7.0 pEC50 103
pEC50 6.0 – 7.0 [103]
F2L {Sp: Human} Mm Full agonist 6.4 pEC50 35
pEC50 6.4 (EC50 4x10-7 M) [35]
AG-26 Hs Full agonist 6.3 pEC50 50
pEC50 6.3 [50]
compound R-(-)-5f [PMID: 22607879] Hs Full agonist 6.3 pEC50 16
pEC50 6.3 (EC50 5.4x10-7 M) [16]
quin-C1 Mm Full agonist 6.2 pEC50 43
pEC50 6.2 [43]
LL-37 {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 6.0 pEC50 19
pEC50 6.0 [19]
annexin I-(2-26) {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 5.8 – 6.1 pEC50 36,42,75,99
pEC50 5.8 – 6.1 [36,42,75,99]
quin-C1 Hs Full agonist 5.7 pEC50 70
pEC50 5.7 [70]
fMet-Ile-Val-Thr-Leu-Phe Mm Full agonist 5.6 pEC50 43,91
pEC50 5.6 [43,91]
fMet-Met-Tyr-Ala-Leu-Phe Mm Full agonist 5.3 pEC50 43
pEC50 5.3 [43]
PrP106-126 Hs Agonist 4.6 pEC50 10
pEC50 4.6 [10]
MHC binding peptide Hs Full agonist 10.0 pIC50 12
pIC50 10.0 [12]
CGEN-855A Hs Full agonist 6.7 pIC50 46
pIC50 6.7 (IC50 1.89x10-7 M) [46]
Hp(2-20) Hs Agonist - - 5
N36 Hs Full agonist - - 60
F peptide Hs Full agonist - - 20
V3 peptide Hs Full agonist - - 86
1R-11 Hs Agonist - - 18
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
Listed above are major FPR2/ALX agonists and several agonists for mouse Fpr2 (Fpr-rs2). They are grouped into several classes:
1. Bacteria-derived formyl peptides: The classic tripeptide fMet-Leu-Phe is a low affinity agonist for FPR2/ALX and is not an activator for mouse Fpr2. The PSMα3 peptide from highly pathogenic S. aureus has a pEC50 value of 8.67 and is one of the most potent bacterial formyl peptides for FPR2/ALX.
2. Mitochondria-derived formyl peptides: fMet-Met-Tyr-Ala-Leu-Phe (ND6), fMet-Leu-Lys-Leu-Ile-Val (ND4), and fMet-Tyr-Phe-Ile-Asn-Ile-Leu-Thr-Leu (ND1) are endogenous agonists for FPR2/ALX [82].
3. Lipid mediators: resolvin D1 (RvD1) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). LXA4 is highly potent in triggering anti-inflammatory functions in animal models. Cell-based studies suggest that FPR2/ALX is a receptor for LXA4 in several published reports [13,26,28], but others failed to identify LXA4-induced GPCR responses [31,40,78]. One of the reasons could be agonist (LXA4) batch difference. A recent study [54] showed that RvD1 and LXA4 selectively activate the beta-arrestin pathway, suggesting that RvD1 and LXA4 might be partial agonists or biased agonists at ALX/FPR2. See [40] for a different outcome in β-arrestin translocation by LXA4.
4. Host-derived non-amyloidogenic peptides: This class includes SHAAGtide, LL-37, CCL-23, humanin, and uPAR(88-274)/D2D3. Annexin and derived peptides are also host-derived non-amyloidogenic peptides, but some of these peptides are less selective between FPR1 and FPR2/ALX.
5. Host-derived amyloidogenic peptides: SAA and Aβ[1-42] are two agonists in this class. They also bind and activate other receptors.
6. HIV-1 envelope peptides: These are T21/DP107, N36, F peptide, and V3 peptide.
7. Prion peptide: PrP (106-126) is the only member of this class, derived from prion proteins.
8. Peptides identified from library screen: This class is represented by WKYMVm and MMK-1. Other peptides with lower potency or affinity are not shown.
9. Synthetic compounds which are FPR2/ALX-specific agonists: Quin-C1, N`-Phenylurea derivatives (AG-26, AG-09/37, AG-09/38, AG-09/42, and AG-09/43), 2-(N-piperazinyl) acetamide derivatives (AG-09/3, AG-09/4, AG-09/73 through AG-09/77, and AG-09/82), and acetohydrazide derivatives (AG-09/7, AG-09/92, AG-09/96, AG-09/101, and AG-09/102). Selected chiral 6-methyl-2, 4-disubstituted pyridazin-3(2H)-compounds are potent mixed FPR1/FPR2/ALX agonists, among which R-(-)-forms generally exhibited higher activity than the S-(+)-enantiomers [16]. Pyrazolone, 4-iodo-substituted compound no. 43 activates FPR2/ALX and mouse Fpr1.

Mouse Fpr2 shares most of its binding properties with human FPR2/ALX. One of the differences is the inability for the mouse Fpr2 to bind and interact with most formylpeptides tested. The exceptions are long peptides such as fMLFII, fMMYALF (from mitochondria), fMIVIL (from L. monocytogenes), which are better agonists with reasonably good EC50 in most functional assays.

Hp(2-20), a peptide from H. pylori induced a rise in intracellular calcium levels in cells tranfected with FPR2/ALX; however the efficacy of this peptide was greater at FPRL2-expressing cells [5].
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
quin-C7 Hs Antagonist 5.2 pEC50 104
pEC50 5.2 [104]
isopropylureido-FLFLF Hs Antagonist 4.3 – 6.0 pEC50 21
pEC50 4.3 – 6.0 [21]
compound 1754-31 [PMID: 23788657] Hs Antagonist 7.1 pIC50 77
pIC50 7.1 [77]
WRWWWW Hs Antagonist 6.6 pIC50 3
pIC50 6.6 [3]
t-Boc-FLFLF Hs Antagonist 4.3 – 6.0 pIC50 32,93,99
pIC50 4.3 – 6.0 [32,93,99]
FPRL1-inhibitor protein Hs Antagonist - - 79
Antagonist Comments
The available FPR2/ALX antagonists are very limited at this time. The recently identified compound (1754-31) is one of the most potent FPR2/ALX antagonists. None of the FPR2/ALX antagonists are found to have inverse agonistic activity. t-Boc-FLFLF is shown in some publications as an antagonist for both FPR1 and FPR2/ALX. In a recent publication, its antagonistic activity is found to be more selective for FPR1 than FPR2/ALX [71].
Allosteric Modulators
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
PBP10 Hs Positive 7.0 pIC50 82
pIC50 7.0 [82]
Allosteric Modulator Comments
PBP10 is a cell-permeable, rhodamine B-coupled polyphosphoinositide-binding peptide based on gelsolin a.a. 160-169. PBP10 inhibits neutrophil degranulation and superoxide generation induced by FPR2/ALX agonists but not FPR1 agonists. However, PBP10 does not affect agonist-induced calcium mobilization, suggesting that it is an allosteric modulator of FPR2/ALX mediated functions [30,33].
Immunopharmacology Comments
Formyl peptide receptor type 2 (FPR2/ALX) activation by lipoxin A4 and annexin 1 has been linked to resolution of inflammation, via upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. Resolvin D1-mediated activation of FPR2/ALX appears to resolve salivary gland inflammation in a mouse model of Sjögren syndrome [100]. FPR2/ALX receptor agonism is a new therapeutic concept that is being investigated for the development of novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents as modulators of pathological dysregulated inflammation [6-7]. Since endogenous pro-resolving mediators like lipoxin A4 are highly unstable, investigators are designing lipoxin mimetics with improved physicochemical properties [18].
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Inflammation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 8 GO processes
GO:0001774 microglial cell activation ISS
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IBA
GO:0043312 neutrophil degranulation TAS
GO:0045089 positive regulation of innate immune response IDA
GO:0048143 astrocyte activation ISS
GO:0050728 negative regulation of inflammatory response IDA
GO:0050766 positive regulation of phagocytosis IDA
GO:0090026 positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis IGI
Immuno Process:  Antigen presentation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 2 GO processes
GO:0006898 receptor-mediated endocytosis ISS
GO:0038024 cargo receptor activity ISS
Immuno Process:  Immune regulation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 5 GO processes
GO:0002430 complement receptor mediated signaling pathway IBA
GO:0002768 immune response-regulating cell surface receptor signaling pathway IDA
GO:0045089 positive regulation of innate immune response IDA
GO:0050728 negative regulation of inflammatory response IDA
GO:0090026 positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis IGI
Immuno Process:  Chemotaxis & migration
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes
GO:0090026 positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis IGI
Immuno Process:  Cellular signalling
GO Annotations:  Associated to 4 GO processes
GO:0001774 microglial cell activation ISS
GO:0002430 complement receptor mediated signaling pathway IBA
GO:0002768 immune response-regulating cell surface receptor signaling pathway IDA
GO:0043312 neutrophil degranulation TAS
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gi/Go family Phospholipase C stimulation
Phospholipase A2 stimulation
Phospholipase D stimulation
References:  26-27,48,57,73-74
Secondary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gq/G11 family Phospholipase C stimulation
Phospholipase A2 stimulation
Phospholipase D stimulation
Other - See Comments
Comments:  FPR2/ALX joins a small group of chemoattractant/chemokine receptors which share a mechanism of using CD38-dependent cyclic ADP ribose for calcium flux and chemotaxis. Many of these receptors also couple to Gq in addition to Gi proteins.
References:  73-74
Tissue Distribution
Most abundant in the lung, followed by spleen and placenta, tissues known to have a relatively high degree of phagocytic cell infiltrates.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern blot
References:  26,96
Cloned in several types of leukocytes, including PMN, monocytes and T cells, as well as resident cells such as macrophages, synovial fibroblasts and intestinal epithelial cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  13
Human FPR2/ALX is expressed in neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, immature dendritic cells, and at low levels in T and B cells. FPR2/ALX is also found in epithelial cells, mocroglial cells, astrocytes, hepatocytes, and at low levels in endothelial cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  67
Most abundant in neutrophils, followed by spleen and lung.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Northern blot
References:  96
Expressed in lung, kidney and leukocytes.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RNase protection assay
References:  14
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
ERK activation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  T cells
Response measured:  ATL stimulate ERK activation
References:  1
LXA4 reduces IL-8 and NF-κB responses, alters MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Fibroblast
Response measured: 
References:  88-89
IL-8 gene expression and release, NF-κB activation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Enterocyte
Response measured:  LXA4 and ATL reduce IL-8 and NF-κB activation
References:  37,55
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Macrophage
Response measured:  LXA4 stimulates nonphlogistic phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils
References:  38
Calcium mobilization, adherence, chemotaxis
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Monocyte, THP-1 cells
Response measured:  LXA4 increases calcium mobilization, adherence, chemotaxis
References:  64-65
PLD activation, arachidonic acid release, PSDP increase
Species:  Human
Tissue:  PMN, HL-60 cells or CHO cells overexpressing human FPR2/ALX
Response measured:  LXA4 and ATL stimulate PLD activation, arachidonic acid release, PSDP, inhibits superoxide anion generation
References:  26-28,62
Physiological Functions
Superoxide generation. Some of the FPR2/ALX agonists are known to stimulate neutrophil superoxide generation. This function can play a role in both host defense and tissue injury.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages
References:  85
Induction of inflammatory gene expression. Several FPR2/ALX agonists have been shown to stimulate NF-κB activation, resulting in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases. This activity is FPR2/ALX dependent.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Neutrophils, synovial fibroblasts, chondrocytes
References:  44,61,89
Chemotaxis. Nearly all FPR2/ALX agonists induce chemotaxis either in neutrophils and monocytes that naturally express this receptor or in FPR2/ALX transfected cell lines. This function is responsible for cell migration, neutrophil and monocyte accumulation in vivo.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Neutrophils, monocytes, other leukocytes that express FPR2
References:  58,95
LXA4 and ATL regulate gene expression in synovial fibroblasts (e.g. IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, MMP-3), and in epithelial cells (e.g. IL-8, NF-κB).
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Fibroblast, enterocyte
References:  37,55,88-89
LXA4 and ATL give pro-resolving signals, stimulating non-phlogistic monocyte activation (clacium mobilization, adherence and chemotaxis), and macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic PMN
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Monocyte and macrophage
References:  38,64-65
LXA4 and ATL give anti-inflammatory signals such as reducing CD11b/CD18, expression, blocking ROS production, NF-κB activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. They also increase anti-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and transcription corepressor NAB1
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Neutrophils
References:  25,29,80
Anti-inflammatory effect. Several studies have shown that ligands for FPR2/ALX such as LXA4, annexin I peptides and a synthetic small molecule, display anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro. While some of these effects may result in part from activation of other receptors such as AhR, transgenic expression of FPR2/ALX in mice has shown increased inhibiton of neutrophil infiltration and suppression of TNF-α induced NF-κB activity. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial with 60 patients showed that 15(R/S)-methyl-LXA4 significantly reduced the severity of eczema (Wu et al, 2013).
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Ear skin, synovial fibroblasts
References:  9,22,75,90
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
In vivo administration of 15-epi-LXA4 (aspirin triggered lipoxin A4) reduces intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in wild-type mice, but is ineffective in Fpr2 knockout mice. Likewise, vascular smooth muscle cells derived from Fpr2 knockout mice are unresponsive to 15-epi-LXA4 in an in vitro wound healing assay.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Blood vessels.
Technique:  Gene knockout.
References:  76
Actions of RvD1 in reducing PMN infiltration and regulating select microRNAs were abolished in Fpr2 null mice
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Peritoneal exudate
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  53,72
Excerbated inflammation (ischemia reperfusion and arthritis). Fpr2 knockout mice exhibit an increased number of adherent and emigrated leukocytes after mesentery ischemia-reperfusion, whereas the number of platelet/neutrophil aggregates were decreased. Fpr2 knockout mice also exhibited an increased carrageenan-induced paw edema and exacerbation and prolongation of K/BxN serum-induced arthritis.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  8,23
Deficiency in mFpr1 and mFpr2 exacerbated the severity of the infection and increased the mortality of infected mice. The mechanism involved impaired early neutrophil recruitment to the liver with Fpr1 and Fpr2 being sole receptors for neutrophils to sense Listeria chemoattractant signals and for production of bactericidal superoxide.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  63
Overexpression of human FPR2/ALX in transgenic mice results in an increased ability of LXA4 to attenuate neutrophil infiltration to ear skin tissue that are stimulated with LTB4 and PGE2. Mice also display a profound anti-inflammatory phenotype, markedly decreasing PMN infiltration with endogenous LXA4. Moreover, these hFPR2/ALX mice show increased sensitivity in response to the suboptimal doses of exogenous ATLa in vivo, shifting the dose response curve to the left when compared to their non-transgenic littermates. These results provide the compelling evidence for direct functional links between LXA4 and functional roles for human FPR2/ALX in vivo
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Peritoneal leukocytes
Technique:  Gene over-expression of human ALX/FPR2 in transgenic mice
References:  22
Fpr2 knockout mice exhibit reduced ovalbumin/alum-induced allergic airway inflammation, associated with lower levels of IL4, IL5 and IL13 in BAL and a reduced recruitment of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Lung
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  11
Knockout of mouse FPR2/ALX (Fpr2), which shares structural and functional features of human FPR2/ALX, results in reduced responsiveness to F2L, an primary agonist for human FPR3.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells
References:  35
Xenobiotics Influencing Gene Expression
Dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone up-regulate mRNA and protein levels of FPR2/ALX
Species:  Human
Tissue:  PMN, monocytes, lymphocytes, HL-60
Technique:  Flow cytometry, RT-PCR
References:  84
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0009278 abnormal bone marrow cell physiology PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0003009 abnormal cytokine secretion PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0002376 abnormal dendritic cell physiology PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0002419 abnormal innate immunity PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1Rjf Fpr2tm1Rjf/Fpr2tm1Rjf
involves: 129S/SvEv * C57BL/6
MGI:1278319  MP:0002463 abnormal neutrophil physiology PMID: 20107188 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0002281 abnormal respiratory mucosa goblet cell morphology PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1Rjf Fpr2tm1Rjf/Fpr2tm1Rjf
involves: 129S/SvEv * C57BL/6
MGI:1278319  MP:0005164 abnormal response to injury PMID: 20107188 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0008127 decreased dendritic cell number PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0002492 decreased IgE level PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0008495 decreased IgG1 level PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0008497 decreased IgG2b level PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0002460 decreased immunoglobulin level PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0001876 decreased inflammatory response PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0008567 decreased interferon-gamma secretion PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0008673 decreased interleukin-13 secretion PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0008688 decreased interleukin-2 secretion PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0008700 decreased interleukin-4 secretion PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0008703 decreased interleukin-5 secretion PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1Rjf Fpr2tm1Rjf/Fpr2tm1Rjf
involves: 129S/SvEv * C57BL/6
MGI:1278319  MP:0003799 impaired macrophage migration PMID: 20107188 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0003799 impaired macrophage migration PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0008720 impaired neutrophil migration PMID: 20200280 
Fpr2tm1Rjf Fpr2tm1Rjf/Fpr2tm1Rjf
involves: 129S/SvEv * C57BL/6
MGI:1278319  MP:0005088 increased acute inflammation PMID: 20107188 
Fpr2tm1Rjf Fpr2tm1Rjf/Fpr2tm1Rjf
involves: 129S/SvEv * C57BL/6
MGI:1278319  MP:0003724 increased susceptibility to induced arthritis PMID: 20107188 
Fpr2tm1.2Jimw Fpr2tm1.2Jimw/Fpr2tm1.2Jimw
MGI:1278319  MP:0002217 small lymph nodes PMID: 20200280 
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology
Disease:  Aspirin exacerbated respiratory diseases
References:  49
Disease:  Cardiovascular disease
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Amino acid change Nucleotide change Description Reference
Single nucleotide polymorphism Human - A single nucleotide mutation (A/G) was detected in the core promoter of one subject with history of cardiovascular disease and of his two daughters 87
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  Association of FPR2 polymorphisms and aspirin exacerbated respiratory diseases -- the minor allele frequency of FPR2 -4209T>G (rs1769490) in intron 2 was significantly lower in the AERD group (n=170) than in the ATA group (n=268). Asthmatic homozygotes for FPR2 -4209T>G minor allele exhibited significantly higher FPR2 protein expression in CD14-positive monocytes than did those with the common allele of FPR2 -4209T>G allele (P=0.01). There was no difference in the expression of the wild form and the exon 2 deleted variant form of FPR2 gene according to the genotypes of FPR2 -4209T>G. The minor allele at FPR2 -4209T>G may have a protective role against the development of AERD, via increase of ALX/FPR2 protein expression in inflammatory cells.
SNP accession: 
References:  49
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The homozygous GG genotype of the FPRL1 -6136G>T polymorphism was significantly lower in subjects with chronic urticaria in a case control study.
References:  101
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  A single nucleotide mutation (A/G) was detected in the core promoter of one subject with history of cardiovascular disease and of his two daughters. This mutation reduced ∼35-90% the promoter activity in vitro. Moreover, neutrophils from individuals carrying the A/G variant displayed ∼10- and 3-fold reduction in FPR2/ALX mRNA and protein, respectively, compared with cells from their relatives or healthy volunteers expressing the wild-type allele. These results uncover FPR2/ALX transcriptional regulation and provide the first evidence of mutations that affect ALX/FPR2 transcription, thus opening new opportunities for the understanding of the LXA4-FPR2/ALX axis in human disease.
References:  87
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The T-allele of a -7893C>T polymorphism of the FPRL1 gene was associated with coronary artery disease in a case-control study, but did not change the transcriptional activity of the gene promoter.
SNP accession: 
References:  98
General Comments
The nomenclature for this receptor is outlined in the 2009 NC-IUPHAR review by Ye et al. [102].

It is important to validate chemical structures of LXA4, ATL and RvD1 before carrying out receptor assays because these ligands are chemically fragile and require precise working conditions at the bench. Also, it is noteworthy that LXA4 and RvD1 are subject to rapid metabolic conversion by mammalian cells and cell lines.


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Magnus Bäck, Nan Chiang, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Jeffrey Drazen, Jilly F. Evans, G. Enrico Rovati, Charles N. Serhan, Takao Shimizu, Takehiko Yokomizo.
Formylpeptide receptors: FPR2/ALX. Last modified on 11/06/2020. Accessed on 11/08/2020. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetoimmunopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=223.