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Targets Associated to Immuno Cell Types - Innate lymphoid cells

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The Innate lymphoid cells category includes the following Cell Ontology parent terms:

innate lymphoid cell (CL:0001065) - A lymphocyte that lacks characteristic T cell, B cell, myeloid cell, and dendritic cell markers, that functions as part of the innate immune response to produce cytokines and other effector responses.

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GtoPdb receptor name (family) Cell Type Association Comments Cell Ontology Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
C3a receptor
(Complement peptide receptors)
Some lamina propria-derived type 3 innate lymphoid cells express C3aR in the mouse.
  • group 3 innate lymphoid cell (CL:0001071)
Complement C3a receptor 1 is the receptor for complement factor C3a, a component of the alternative complement cascade. It can have pro-inflammatory actions, but can also counteract the proinflammatory effects of C5a.
The complement system plays a critical role intestinal immune homeostasis. In particular, C3 and the C3aR have been identified as being involved in regulating the intestinal immune response during chronic colitis [21,27] ...
DP2 receptor
(Prostanoid receptors)
Expression of the DP2 receptor is restricted to eosinophils, basophils, Th2 cells, and innate lymphoid cells.
  • innate lymphoid cell (CL:0001065)
The DP2 receptor (a.k.a. CRTH2, chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-helper 2 cells) is expressed exclusively by a range of human immune cells including Th2 cells, basophils, eosinophils and innate lymphoid cells [7,16] ...
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Cell Type Association Comments Cell Ontology Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
dual oxidase 1
(NADPH oxidases)
DUOX1 expression has been reported in ILCs.
  • innate lymphoid cell (CL:0001065)
DUOX1 participates in innate immune responses to epithelial injury and allergens, and in the development of allergic diseases [25] ...
Other Protein Targets
GtoPdb receptor name (family) Cell Type Association Comments Cell Ontology Associations Immunopharmacology Comments
programmed cell death 1 (CD279)
(Other immune checkpoint proteins, CD molecules)
PD-1 expression by ILC2s appears to be dependent on their tissue origin and the inflammatory milieu. Expression is enhanced by IL-33 stimulation, and inhbits their ability to release cytokines. PD-1 blocking antibodies can modulate ILC2s effector functions. ILC3s can express a functional PD-1 receptor that has been detected in first trimester human decidua and ILC3s from pleural effusions obtained from patients with primary and metastatic tumours.
  • group 2 innate lymphoid cell (CL:0001069)
  • group 3 innate lymphoid cell (CL:0001071)
Immune checkpoint blockade in oncology:
Many types of cancer cells evolve mechanisms to evade control and elimination by the immune system. Such mechanisms can include inhibition of so-called 'immune checkpoints', which would normally be involved in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. An increasingly important area of clinical oncology research is the development of new agents which impede these evasion techniques, thereby switching immune vigilance back on, and effecting immune destruction of cancer cells. Three molecular targets of checkpoint inhibitors which are being extensively pursued are cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Using antibody-based therapies targeting these pathways, clinical responses have been reported in various tumour types, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma [17] ...
(Other immune checkpoint proteins, Immunoglobulin like domain containing proteins)
TIGIT is expressed by human ILC1s and ILC3s.
  • group 1 innate lymphoid cell (CL:0001067)
  • group 3 innate lymphoid cell (CL:0001071)
TIGIT is now considered as an alternate inhibitory immune checkpoint protein which may have potential immunotherapeutic potential, particularly in conditions refractory to more established PD-1 checkpoint inhibition. Given its presence on T cells and NK cells, TIGIT offers an intervention point for targeting both the adaptive and innate arms of the immune system. Clinical development of anti-TIGIT monoclonal antibodies is in preliminary stages. Combination therapies with existing immune checkpoint inhibitors are considered particularly promising. MTIG7192A (NCT02794571 ...
TIM3 (CD366)
(Other immune checkpoint proteins, CD molecules)
TIM3 expression has been reported on human ILC3s.
  • group 3 innate lymphoid cell (CL:0001071)
TIM3 is an immunoglobulin type protein expressed exclusively on the surface of differentiated Th1 cells [15] ...