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Chemokine receptors C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).

Overview

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Chemokine receptors (nomenclature as agreed by the NC-IUPHAR Subcommittee on Chemokine Receptors [6,78-79]) comprise a large subfamily of 7TM proteins that bind one or more chemokines, a large family of small cytokines typically possessing chemotactic activity for leukocytes. Additional hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic roles have been identified for many chemokines in the areas of embryonic development, immune cell proliferation, activation and death, viral infection, and as antibiotics, among others. Chemokine receptors can be divided by function into two main groups: G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, which mediate leukocyte trafficking, and "Atypical chemokine receptors", which may signal through non-G protein-coupled mechanisms and act as chemokine scavengers to downregulate inflammation or shape chemokine gradients [6].

Chemokines in turn can be divided by structure into four subclasses by the number and arrangement of conserved cysteines. CC (also known as β-chemokines; n= 28), CXC (also known as α-chemokines; n= 17) and CX3C (n= 1) chemokines all have four conserved cysteines, with zero, one and three amino acids separating the first two cysteines respectively. C chemokines (n= 2) have only the second and fourth cysteines found in other chemokines. Chemokines can also be classified by function into homeostatic and inflammatory subgroups. Most chemokine receptors are able to bind multiple high-affinity chemokine ligands, but the ligands for a given receptor are almost always restricted to the same structural subclass. Most chemokines bind to more than one receptor subtype. Receptors for inflammatory chemokines are typically highly promiscuous with regard to ligand specificity, and may lack a selective endogenous ligand. G protein-coupled chemokine receptors are named acccording to the class of chemokines bound, whereas ACKR is the root acronym for atypical chemokine receptors [7]. There can be substantial cross-species differences in the sequences of both chemokines and chemokine receptors, and in the pharmacology and biology of chemokine receptors. Endogenous and microbial non-chemokine ligands have also been identified for chemokine receptors. Many chemokine receptors function as HIV co-receptors, but CCR5 is the only one demonstrated to play an essential role in HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. The tables include both standard chemokine receptor names [123] and aliases.

Receptors

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Targets of relevance to immunopharmacology are highlighted in blue

CCR1 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CCR2 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CCR3 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CCR4 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CCR5 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CCR6 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CCR7 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CCR8 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

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CCR10 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CXCR1 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

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CXCR5 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CXCR6 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CX3CR1 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

XCR1 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

ACKR1 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

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ACKR4 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

CCRL2 C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

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References

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NC-IUPHAR subcommittee and family contributors

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation (select format):

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Christopoulos A, Davenport AP, Kelly E, Mathie A, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA; CGTP Collaborators. (2019) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20: G protein-coupled receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 176 Issue S1: S21-S141.