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M3 receptor

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Target not currently curated in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 15

Nomenclature: M3 receptor

Family: Acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic)

Gene and Protein Information Click here for help
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 590 1q43 CHRM3 cholinergic receptor muscarinic 3 33
Mouse 7 589 13 3.72 cM Chrm3 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3, cardiac 71
Rat 7 589 17q12.1 Chrm3 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 50,109
Previous and Unofficial Names Click here for help
HM4 [84-85] | Chrm-3 | M3R | cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 | cholinergic receptor | cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3, cardiac
Database Links Click here for help
Specialist databases
GPCRDB acm3_human (Hs), acm3_mouse (Mm), acm3_rat (Rn)
Other databases
Alphafold
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Orphanet
Pharos
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Selected 3D Structures Click here for help
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  Structure of the M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor
PDB Id:  4DAJ
Ligand:  tiotropium
Resolution:  3.4Å
Species:  Rat
References:  56
Natural/Endogenous Ligands Click here for help
acetylcholine

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file go icon to follow link

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
NNC 11-1585 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 8.3 pKi 20
pKi 8.3 [20]
NNC 11-1607 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 8.1 pKi 20
pKi 8.1 [20]
pentylthio-TZTP Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 8.1 pKi 47
pKi 8.1 [47]
NNC 11-1314 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 7.1 – 7.7 pKi 20
pKi 7.1 – 7.7 [20]
xanomeline Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 7.2 – 7.4 pKi 116,125
pKi 7.2 – 7.4 [116,125]
sabcomeline Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 7.0 pKi 125
pKi 7.0 [125]
arecaidine propargyl ester Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.7 pKi 47
pKi 5.7 [47]
acetylcholine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Ligand has a PDB structure Rn Full agonist 5.6 pKi 19
pKi 5.6 [19]
cevimeline Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Agonist 5.6 pKi 69
pKi 5.6 (Ki 2.575x10-6 M) [69]
Description: Displacement of [3H]QNB from cloned receptor.
arecoline Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.4 pKi 47,82,93
pKi 5.4 [47,82,93]
oxotremorine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.3 pKi 47,93
pKi 5.3 [47,93]
McN-A-343 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 5.0 – 5.3 pKi 93
pKi 5.0 – 5.3 [93]
milameline Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 5.1 pKi 125
pKi 5.1 [125]
oxotremorine-M Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.1 pKi 47
pKi 5.1 [47]
pilocarpine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Partial agonist 5.1 pKi 47,93
pKi 5.1 [47,93]
acetylcholine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is endogenous in the given species Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Full agonist 4.5 – 5.4 pKi 19,47,51
pKi 4.5 – 5.4 [19,47,51]
methylfurmethide Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 4.6 pKi 47
pKi 4.6 [47]
bethanechol Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 4.2 pKi 47,93
pKi 4.2 [47,93]
carbachol Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Full agonist 4.0 – 4.4 pKi 19,47,125
pKi 4.0 – 4.4 [19,47,125]
carbachol Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Rn Full agonist 4.2 pKi 19
pKi 4.2 [19]
furtrethonium Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 4.1 pKi 47
pKi 4.1 [47]
methacholine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Rn Agonist 6.9 pEC50 83,93
pEC50 6.9 (EC50 1.2x10-7 M) [83,93]
(+)-aceclidine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Full agonist 5.7 pEC50 29
pEC50 5.7 [29]
(-)-aceclidine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Partial agonist 5.1 pEC50 29
pEC50 5.1 [29]
iperoxo Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Agonist - - 96
[96]
View species-specific agonist tables
Agonist Comments
Please consult references [10,30,62,93,114,123] for further details of the activity of some of the ligands in this list.
McN-A-343 has been found to be a partial agonist at the M3 receptor [93,114]. However, in reference [62] it was found to be inactive in a study of GTPase activation.
Oxotremorine has been found to be a full agonist [30,93,114] and a partial agonist [62,93] at the M3 receptor.
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
[3H]tiotropium Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 10.7 pKd 95
pKd 10.7 [95]
[3H]QNB Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 10.4 pKd 46,85
pKd 10.4 (Kd 3.98x10-11 M) [46,85]
CHF-6366 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 10.2 pKd 16
pKd 10.2 (Kd 6.3x10-11 M) [16]
Description: Binding to human cloned M3 receptor using [3H]-N-methylscopolamine as tracer
[3H]N-methyl scopolamine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Rn Antagonist 10.0 pKd 19,114
pKd 10.0 [19,114]
[3H]N-methyl scopolamine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 9.7 – 10.2 pKd 17,43,46-47,52,60
pKd 9.7 – 10.2 (Kd 2.2x10-10 – 6x10-11 M) [17,43,46-47,52,60]
[3H]darifenacin Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 9.5 pKd 100
pKd 9.5 (Kd 3.16x10-10 M) [100]
biperiden Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.4 pKd 6
pKd 8.4 (Kd 3.9x10-9 M) [6]
N-methyl scopolamine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 10.4 pKi 25
pKi 10.4 [25]
tiotropium Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Antagonist 9.5 – 11.1 pKi 24-25,89,106-107
pKi 9.5 – 11.1 [24-25,89,106-107]
umeclidinium Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Antagonist 10.2 pKi 57,95
pKi 10.2 (Ki 6x10-11 M) [57,95]
aclidinium Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 10.1 – 10.2 pKi 89,107
pKi 10.1 – 10.2 [89,107]
propantheline Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 10.0 pKi 44
pKi 10.0 [44]
AE9C90CB Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.9 pKi 99
pKi 9.9 [99]
revefenacin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.8 pKi 42
pKi 9.8 (Ki 1.78x10-10 M) [42]
Description: Determined from a radioligand binding assay using membranes from CHO‐K1 cells expressing the hM3 receptor, and displacement of [3H]NMS tracer.
clidinium Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Hs Antagonist 9.6 pKi 25
pKi 9.6 [25]
ipratropium Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Antagonist 9.3 – 9.8 pKi 25,43,89
pKi 9.3 – 9.8 [25,43,89]
scopolamine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.4 pKi 6,44
pKi 9.4 [6,44]
4-DAMP Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.3 pKi 27
pKi 9.3 [27]
4-DAMP Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 9.2 pKi 50
pKi 9.2 [50]
atropine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.5 – 9.8 pKi 21,43-44,85
pKi 8.5 – 9.8 [21,43-44,85]
[3H]4-DAMP Small molecule or natural product Ligand is labelled Ligand is radioactive Hs Antagonist 8.8 – 9.4 pKi 18,48
pKi 8.8 – 9.4 [18,48]
dicyclomine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 9.0 pKi 3
pKi 9.0 (Ki 9.3x10-10 M) [3]
atropine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 8.7 – 9.3 pKi 19,50
pKi 8.7 – 9.3 [19,50]
darifenacin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.9 – 9.1 pKi 37,43,99
pKi 8.9 – 9.1 [37,43,99]
hexocyclium Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.9 pKi 11
pKi 8.9 [11]
silahexocyclium Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.9 pKi 11
pKi 8.9 [11]
oxybutynin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.8 pKi 23,99
pKi 8.8 [23,99]
mepenzolic acid Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.6 pKi 128
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.6x10-9 M) [128]
tolterodine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.4 – 8.5 pKi 37,99
pKi 8.4 – 8.5 [37,99]
UH-AH 37 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 8.1 – 8.2 pKi 37,122
pKi 8.1 – 8.2 [37,122]
p-F-HHSiD Small molecule or natural product Rn Antagonist 8.0 pKi 50
pKi 8.0 [50]
amitriptyline Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Antagonist 7.9 pKi 101
pKi 7.9 (Ki 1.28x10-8 M) [101]
hexahydrosiladifenidol Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.7 – 8.0 pKi 11,31
pKi 7.7 – 8.0 [11,31]
solifenacin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.7 – 8.0 pKi 45,99
pKi 7.7 – 8.0 [45,99]
hexahydrodifenidol Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.8 pKi 11
pKi 7.8 [11]
p-F-HHSiD Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.3 – 7.9 pKi 31,44
pKi 7.3 – 7.9 [31,44]
dosulepin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.4 pKi 101
pKi 7.4 (Ki 3.8x10-8 M) [101]
AQ-RA 741 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.2 – 7.3 pKi 27,37
pKi 7.2 – 7.3 [27,37]
AFDX384 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.2 pKi 27
pKi 7.2 [27]
himbacine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.9 – 7.2 pKi 27,49,75
pKi 6.9 – 7.2 [27,49,75]
tropicamide Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 7.0 pKi 21
pKi 7.0 [21]
(S)-dimetindene Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Antagonist 6.9 pKi 14
pKi 6.9 (Ki 1.38x10-7 M) [14]
Description: Binding to hM3 receptors expressed in CHO cells.
tripitramine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.8 pKi 76
pKi 6.8 [76]
pirenzepine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.7 pKi 50
pKi 6.7 [50]
pirenzepine Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.5 – 6.8 pKi 11,27,41,44,49,122
pKi 6.5 – 6.8 [11,27,41,44,49,122]
methoctramine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.1 – 6.9 pKi 11,27,31,41,100
pKi 6.1 – 6.9 [11,27,31,41,100]
guanylpirenzepine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.2 pKi 113
pKi 6.2 [113]
otenzepad Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.1 pKi 11
pKi 6.1 [11]
VU0255035 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.1 pKi 97
pKi 6.1 [97]
otenzepad Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.0 pKi 50
pKi 6.0 [50]
muscarinic toxin 3 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist <6.0 pKi 49
pKi <6.0 [49]
lithocholylcholine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.0 pKi 19
pKi 6.0 [19]
lithocholylcholine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Rn Antagonist 6.0 pKi 19
pKi 6.0 [19]
muscarinic toxin 7 Peptide Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist <5.0 pKi 78
pKi <5.0 [78]
ML381 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist <4.5 pKi 36
pKi <4.5 (Ki >3x10-5 M) [36]
glycopyrrolate Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Immunopharmacology Ligand Hs Antagonist 9.6 – 9.8 pIC50 104,106
pIC50 9.6 – 9.8 [104,106]
Description: Assay uses glycopyrronium bromide
solifenacin Small molecule or natural product Approved drug Primary target of this compound Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Antagonist 6.9 pIC50 88
pIC50 6.9 (IC50 1.308x10-7 M) [88]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Antagonist Comments
Biperiden is an approved drug antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. We have tagged the M1 subtype as the drug's primary target as affinity is 10-fold higher at this receptor subtype [6].
Allosteric Modulators
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Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
alcuronium Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 5.8 pKd 47
pKd 5.8 [47]
vincamine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Neutral 5.7 pKd 47
pKd 5.7 [47]
WIN 51,708 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 5.5 pKd 65
pKd 5.5 [65]
vinburnine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Neutral 5.2 pKd 47
pKd 5.2 [47]
Gö 7874 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 5.1 pKd 64
pKd 5.1 [64]
WIN 62,577 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Positive 5.1 pKd 65
pKd 5.1 (Kd 7.94x10-6 M) [65]
strychnine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Negative 4.2 – 5.7 pKd 47,60
pKd 4.2 – 5.7 [47,60]
thiochrome Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Neutral 4.4 pKd 61
pKd 4.4 [61]
N-benzyl brucine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 3.8 pKd 63
pKd 3.8 [63]
N-benzyl brucine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Positive 3.8 pKd 63
pKd 3.8 [63]
brucine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Negative 3.6 – 4.0 pKd 47,63
pKd 3.6 – 4.0 [47,63]
N-chloromethyl-brucine Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Positive 3.3 pKd 63
pKd 3.3 (Kd 5.012x10-4 M) [63]
brucine N-oxide Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Neutral 2.5 pKd 63
pKd 2.5 [63]
brucine N-oxide Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Positive 2.5 pKd 63
pKd 2.5 [63]
VU0119498 Small molecule or natural product Click here for species-specific activity table Hs Positive 5.2 pEC50 8
pEC50 5.2 (EC50 6.38x10-6 M) [8]
Primary Transduction Mechanisms Click here for help
Transducer Effector/Response
Gq/G11 family Phospholipase C stimulation
References:  9,84
Tissue Distribution Click here for help
Esophageal smooth muscle.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  90
Bladder.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  110
Lung.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  70
Ciliary muscle.
Species:  Human
Technique:  In situ hybridisation and Northern blotting.
References:  132
CNS: cerebral cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons-medulla.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  79
CNS: pons.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  4
CNS: basal forebrain, parabigeminal nucleus, pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei, cranial nerve nuclei.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  111
CNS: cerebral cortex, hippocampu, corpus striatum, olfactory tubercle, midbrain, pons-medulla, cerebellum.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunoprecipitation.
References:  129
Intestinal smooth muscle.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Radioligand binding.
References:  15
Salivary gland: striated and interlobular duct cells.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry.
References:  98
Heart: intrinsic neurons.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  40
Vestibular system.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  112
CNS: hippocampus.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  67
CNS: limbic cortical regions, striatum, hippocampus, anterior thalamic nuclei, superior colliculus, pontine nuclei.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  immunocytochemistry.
References:  66
Gastric smooth muscle.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  68
Expression Datasets Click here for help

Show »

Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays Click here for help
Measurement of PI hydrolysis in CHO cells transfected with the human M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of PI hydrolysis.
References:  20
Measurement of IP3 levels in CHO cells transfected with the rat M3 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of IP3 accumulation.
References:  19
Measurement of IP1 levels in murine fibroblast cells (B82) transfected with the rat M3 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  B82 cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of IP1 accumulation.
References:  50
Measurement of cAMP and Ca2+ levels in rat parotid cells endogenously expressing the M3 receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Parotid cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of cAMP accumulation and stimulation of Ca2+ mobilisation.
References:  80
Measurement of IP levels in CHO cells transfected with the human M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of IP accumulation.
References:  93,117
Measurement of IP levels in human right atrial slices.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Atrial slices.
Response measured:  Stimulation of IP formation.
References:  124
Measurement of IP levels in isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes.
Response measured:  Stimulation of IP formation.
References:  91
Measurement of neuronal nitric oxide synthetase activity in CHO cells transfected with the M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Increase in NO synthetase activity.
References:  115
Measurement of ERK1/2 activity in COS-7 cells transfected with the human M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  COS-7 cells.
Response measured:  Increase in ERK1/2 activity.
References:  94
Measurement of ERK1/2 activity in CHO cells transfected with the human M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  Increase in ERK1/2 activity.
References:  12
Measurement of ERK1/2 activity in human SK-N-BE2(C) cells endogenously expressing the M3 receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  SK-N-BE2(C) cells.
Response measured:  Increase in ERK1/2 activity.
References:  54
Measurement of the effects of a ligand on the level, or rate, of binding of GTPγ35S to membranes.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cells.
Response measured:  The binding of GTPγ35S to G proteins coupled to the receptor.
References:  5,59-62,64-65
Measurement of the effects of a ligand on the rate of hydrolysis of GTP by G proteins in membranes.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  CHO cell membranes.
Response measured:  Generation of 32Pi from [γ-32P]GTP.
References:  62
Physiological Functions Click here for help
Vasodilation.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Thoracic aortic rings.
References:  53
Vasodilation
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Thoracic aortic rings.
References:  53
Stimulation of pancreatic insulin and glucagon release.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  26
Bronchoconstriction.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Isolated lung.
References:  87
Modulation of salivary gland function.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  108
Modulation of excitatory transmission.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Mesencephalic slices.
References:  39
Gastric acid secretion.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Gastric parietal cells.
References:  86
Modulation of insulin secretion.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Isolated pancreatic islets.
References:  92
Vasodilation.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Pulmonary artery.
References:  74
Stimulation of urination.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  55
Contraction.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Urinary bladder detrusor muscle.
References:  22
Contraction.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Urinary bladder detrusor muscle.
References:  81
Contraction.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Esophageal smooth muscle.
References: