autotaxin | LPA synthesis | IUPHAR Guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

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  Target has curated data in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 2901

Nomenclature: autotaxin

Family: LPA synthesis

Annotation status:  image of a grey circle Awaiting annotation/under development. Please contact us if you can help with annotation.  » Email us

Gene and Protein Information
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human - 915 8q24.12 ENPP2 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2
Mouse - 914 15 D2 Enpp2 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2
Rat - 862 7q31 Enpp2 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2
Gene and Protein Information Comments
The table provides information for human variant 1, which is the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1, also known as alpha). Similarly for the mouse gene, which has 4 reported transcript variants, we provide information for the longest protein isoform.
In humans and mice variant 2, which is translated to isoform β, is the major isoform found in tissue expression studies [6].
Previous and Unofficial Names
Database Links
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Enzyme
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
Enzyme Reaction
EC Number:
Description Reaction Reference
Hydrolysis of lysophosphatidylcholine to form lysophosphatidic acid 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine + H2O <=> 1-alkyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + ethanolamine

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
ziritaxestat Hs Inhibition 7.8 pKi 4
pKi 7.8 (Ki 1.5x10-8 M) [4]
Description: Inhibition of substrate (LPC) conversion to LPA.
example 1.11 [WO2014139978] Hs Inhibition 9.0 pIC50 7
pIC50 9.0 (IC50 1x10-9 M) [7]
PF-8380 Hs Inhibition 8.6 – 8.8 pIC50 5,11
pIC50 8.6 – 8.8 (IC50 2.8x10-9 – 1.7x10-9 M) [5,11]
BI-2545 Hs Inhibition 8.7 pIC50 8
pIC50 8.7 (IC50 2.2x10-9 M) [8]
example 2 [WO2013054185] Hs Inhibition 8.6 pIC50 9
pIC50 8.6 (IC50 2.59x10-9 M) [9]
BI-2545 Rn Inhibition 8.5 pIC50 8
pIC50 8.5 (IC50 3.4x10-9 M) [8]
example 31 (24) [WO2012005227] Rn Inhibition 7.6 – 8.0 pIC50 1
pIC50 8.0 (IC50 1x10-8 M) [1]
Description: Evaluated in a rat whole blood assay.
pIC50 7.6 (IC50 2.7x10-8 M) [1]
Description: Evaluated in an in vitro biochemical ATX assay.
inhibitor 32 [PMID: 29620892] Mm Inhibition 7.2 pIC50 10
pIC50 7.2 (IC50 6x10-8 M) [10]
Description: Inhibition of purified mouse ATX-mediated production of choline from the cleavage of LPC to LPA.
View species-specific inhibitor tables
Inhibitor Comments
ATX inhibitors are being investigated for potential anti-fibrotic activity. ATX inhibitor development and exemplar compounds are discussed in [2]. GLPG1690 has completed a first-in-human Phase 1 clinical trial (NCT02179502). Phase 2 trial NCT02738801 is evaluating the safety, tolerability, PK and PD of GLPG1690 in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, example 31 (24) (a.k.a. Ex_31) failed to show any anti-fibrotic effects in two models of advanced liver fibrosis in rats [1].
Immunopharmacology Comments
Autotaxin is up-regulated in many inflammatory conditions, including cancer, arthritis, fibrotic diseases and multiple sclerosis. The product of autotaxin activity, LPA, has proliferative, chemotactic and angiogenic actions. Inhibitors of the ATX-LPA axis are being investigated as novel pharmaceuticals [2].
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Antigen presentation
GO Annotations:  Associated to 1 GO processes, IEA only
click arrow to show/hide IEA associations
GO:0005044 scavenger receptor activity IEA
Tissue Distribution
Brain and peripheral tissues (human and mouse):
predominately ATXβ isoform. ATXα found at low levels in central and peripheral nervous systems, and ATXγ also at low levels in the CNS.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  6
Physiological Functions
Converts sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)
Species:  Human
Tissue:  In vitro cell culture
References:  3
Hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine to form the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA).
Species:  Human
References:  6


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1. Baader M, Bretschneider T, Broermann A, Rippmann JF, Stierstorfer B, Kuttruff CA, Mark M. (2018) Characterization of the properties of a selective, orally bioavailable autotaxin inhibitor in preclinical models of advanced stages of liver fibrosis. Br. J. Pharmacol., 175 (4): 693-707. [PMID:29197066]

2. Castagna D, Budd DC, Macdonald SJ, Jamieson C, Watson AJ. (2016) Development of Autotaxin Inhibitors: An Overview of the Patent and Primary Literature. J. Med. Chem., 59 (12): 5604-21. [PMID:26745766]

3. Clair T, Aoki J, Koh E, Bandle RW, Nam SW, Ptaszynska MM, Mills GB, Schiffmann E, Liotta LA, Stracke ML. (2003) Autotaxin hydrolyzes sphingosylphosphorylcholine to produce the regulator of migration, sphingosine-1-phosphate. Cancer Res., 63 (17): 5446-53. [PMID:14500380]

4. Desroy N, Housseman C, Bock X, Joncour A, Bienvenu N, Cherel L, Labeguere V, Rondet E, Peixoto C, Grassot JM et al.. (2017) Discovery of 2-[[2-Ethyl-6-[4-[2-(3-hydroxyazetidin-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl]piperazin-1-yl]-8-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl]methylamino]-4-(4-fluorophenyl)thiazole-5-carbonitrile (GLPG1690), a First-in-Class Autotaxin Inhibitor Undergoing Clinical Evaluation for the Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. J. Med. Chem., 60 (9): 3580-3590. [PMID:28414242]

5. Gierse J, Thorarensen A, Beltey K, Bradshaw-Pierce E, Cortes-Burgos L, Hall T, Johnston A, Murphy M, Nemirovskiy O, Ogawa S et al.. (2010) A novel autotaxin inhibitor reduces lysophosphatidic acid levels in plasma and the site of inflammation. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 334 (1): 310-7. [PMID:20392816]

6. Giganti A, Rodriguez M, Fould B, Moulharat N, Cogé F, Chomarat P, Galizzi JP, Valet P, Saulnier-Blache JS, Boutin JA et al.. (2008) Murine and human autotaxin alpha, beta, and gamma isoforms: gene organization, tissue distribution, and biochemical characterization. J. Biol. Chem., 283 (12): 7776-89. [PMID:18175805]

7. Hert J, Hunziker D, Mattei P, Mauser H, Tang G, Wang L. (2014) New octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]-pyrrole derivatives and analogs thereof as autotaxin inhibitors. Patent number: WO2014139978 A1. Assignee: Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.. Priority date: 12/03/2013. Publication date: 18/09/2014.

8. Kuttruff CA, Ferrara M, Bretschneider T, Hoerer S, Handschuh S, Nosse B, Romig H, Nicklin P, Roth GJ. (2017) Discovery of BI-2545: A Novel Autotaxin Inhibitor That Significantly Reduces LPA Levels in Vivo. ACS Med Chem Lett, 8 (12): 1252-1257. [PMID:29259743]

9. Long S, Thorarensen A, Schnute ME. (2013) Pyrimidine and pyridine derivatives useful in therapy. Patent number: WO2013054185 A1. Assignee: Pfizer, Inc.. Priority date: 13/10/2011. Publication date: 18/04/2013.

10. Nikolaou A, Ninou I, Kokotou MG, Kaffe E, Afantitis A, Aidinis V, Kokotos G. (2018) Hydroxamic Acids Constitute a Novel Class of Autotaxin Inhibitors that Exhibit in Vivo Efficacy in a Pulmonary Fibrosis Model. J. Med. Chem., 61 (8): 3697-3711. [PMID:29620892]

11. St-Cœur PD, Ferguson D, Morin Jr P, Touaibia M. (2013) PF-8380 and closely related analogs: synthesis and structure-activity relationship towards autotaxin inhibition and glioma cell viability. Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim), 346 (2): 91-7. [PMID:23300119]

How to cite this page

LPA synthesis: autotaxin. Last modified on 18/04/2019. Accessed on 11/08/2020. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,