|Dry eye disease is believed to be a chronic inflammatory condition . The disease is accompanied by an increase of ICAM-1 expression, which is postulated to underpin the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction which supports the pathological inflammatory and specific T-cell regulated immune responses in this condition. Although the mechanism of action of lifitegrast in dry eye disease is not fully resolved, the drug has been shown to antagonise the interaction between ICAM-1 and LFA-1 to bring about a reduction in the signs and symptoms of the condition .
Giblin and Lemieux (2006)  review LFA-1 as a key regulator of immune function and discuss the mechanisms employed by the different types of LFA-1-based therapeutics in development . Descriptive content in patent WO2015189265  alludes to lifitegrast being an α/β I allosteric LFA-1 inhibitor; this class of inhibitors are ligand mimetics based on amino acid sequence of the LFA-1 binding region of ICAM, which are found to compete for binding of an internal ligand of LFA-1 beta chain. A more extensive review of integrin modulators in the patent literature is provided by Kapp et al. (2013) .