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Prolyl hydroxylases C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


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Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are rapidly-responding sensors of reductions in local oxygen tensions, prompting changes in gene transcription. Listed here are the 4-prolyl hydroxylase family, members of which have been identified to hydroxylate proline residues in HIF1α (HIF1A; Q16665) leading to an increased degradation through proteasomal hydrolysis. This action requires molecular oxygen and 2-oxoglutarate, and so reduced oxygen tensions prevents HIF1α hydroxylation, allowing its translocation to the nucleus and dimerisation with HIF1β (also known as ARNT; P27540), thereby allowing interaction with the genome as a transcription factor.


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Targets of relevance to immunopharmacology are highlighted in blue

PHD1 (egl-9 family hypoxia inducible factor 2) C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

PHD2 (egl-9 family hypoxia inducible factor 1) C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

PHD3 (egl-9 family hypoxia inducible factor 3) C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

Further reading

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

Prolyl hydroxylases. Accessed on 29/03/2023. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SP, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Mathie A, Peters JA, Veale EL et al. (2021) THE CONCISE GUIDE TO PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 178 Suppl 1:S313-S411.