aconitate decarboxylase 1 | Itaconate biosynthesis | IUPHAR Guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

Top ▲

aconitate decarboxylase 1

  Target has curated data in GtoImmuPdb

Target id: 3018

Nomenclature: aconitate decarboxylase 1

Abbreviated Name: IRG1

Family: Itaconate biosynthesis

Annotation status:  image of a grey circle Awaiting annotation/under development. Please contact us if you can help with annotation.  » Email us

Gene and Protein Information
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human - 481 13q22.3 ACOD1 aconitate decarboxylase 1
Mouse - 488 14 E2.3; 14 51.67 cM Acod1 aconitate decarboxylase 1
Rat - 488 15q23 Acod1 aconitate decarboxylase 1
Previous and Unofficial Names
immune-responsive gene 1 | immunoresponsive gene 1 | IRG1 | cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CAD)
Database Links
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Enzyme
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
Enzyme Reaction
EC Number:
Description Reaction Reference
Generates itaconic acid via decarboxylation of cis-aconitate (a TCA cycle intermediate). Cis-aconitate <=> itaconate + CO(2) 4
Immunopharmacology Comments
Itaconate (itaconic acid) is generated from the citric acid (TCA) cycle intermediate cis-aconitic acid which is produced by mitochondria. Itaconate is synthesised by the enzyme aconitate decarboxylase 1 (referred to as immunoresponsive gene 1 or IRG1). Its synthesis links metabolism to immunity and it plays an important role in the macrophage-based immune response [2-3]. In the cancer setting, tumour cells alter the metabolic state of macrophages and induce their itaconate production. This itaconate potentiates tumour growth, at least as demonstrated in peritoneal tumours [5]. Itaconate-mediated tumour growth may be associated with this metabolite's ability to induce tolerance in human monocytes [3]. As the primary source of itaconate in cells, IRG1 is therefore a target for novel anti-cancer therapeutic design and development. Modulation of immune cell activity by itaconate and/or itaconate derivatives (e.g. dimethyl itaconate) has been suggested as a tractable mechanistic approach for the treatment of IL-17-driven autoimmune diseases [1].
Cell Type Associations
Immuno Cell Type:  Macrophages & monocytes
Cell Ontology Term:   macrophage (CL:0000235)
Comment:  Expressed by macrophages.
References:  6


Show »

1. Bambouskova M, Gorvel L, Lampropoulou V, Sergushichev A, Loginicheva E, Johnson K, Korenfeld D, Mathyer ME, Kim H, Huang LH et al.. (2018) Electrophilic properties of itaconate and derivatives regulate the IκBζ-ATF3 inflammatory axis. Nature, 556 (7702): 501-504. [PMID:29670287]

2. Cordes T, Michelucci A, Hiller K. (2015) Itaconic Acid: The Surprising Role of an Industrial Compound as a Mammalian Antimicrobial Metabolite. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 35: 451-73. [PMID:25974697]

3. Domínguez-Andrés J, Novakovic B, Li Y, Scicluna BP, Gresnigt MS, Arts RJW, Oosting M, Moorlag SJCFM, Groh LA, Zwaag J et al.. (2019) The Itaconate Pathway Is a Central Regulatory Node Linking Innate Immune Tolerance and Trained Immunity. Cell Metab., 29 (1): 211-220.e5. [PMID:30293776]

4. Strelko CL, Lu W, Dufort FJ, Seyfried TN, Chiles TC, Rabinowitz JD, Roberts MF. (2011) Itaconic acid is a mammalian metabolite induced during macrophage activation. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 133 (41): 16386-9. [PMID:21919507]

5. Weiss JM, Davies LC, Karwan M, Ileva L, Ozaki MK, Cheng RY, Ridnour LA, Annunziata CM, Wink DA, McVicar DW. (2018) Itaconic acid mediates crosstalk between macrophage metabolism and peritoneal tumors. J. Clin. Invest., 128 (9): 3794-3805. [PMID:29920191]

6. Xiao W, Wang L, Xiao R, Wu M, Tan J, He Y. (2011) Expression profile of human immune-responsive gene 1 and generation and characterization of polyclonal antiserum. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 353 (1-2): 177-87. [PMID:21424586]

How to cite this page

Itaconate biosynthesis: aconitate decarboxylase 1. Last modified on 22/10/2018. Accessed on 26/04/2019. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,