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RAS subfamily C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


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The RAS proteins (HRAS, NRAS and KRAS) are small membrane-localised G protein-like molecules of 21 kd. They act as an on/off switch linking receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinase activation to downstream cytoplasmic or nuclear events. Binding of GTP activates the switch, and hydrolysis of the GTP to GDP inactivates the switch.

The RAS proto-oncogenes are the most frequently mutated class of proteins in human cancers. Common mutations compromise the GTP-hydrolysing ability of the proteins causing constitutive activation [4], which leads to increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis [5]. Because of their importance in oncogenic transformation these proteins have become the targets of intense drug discovery effort [1].


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Targets of relevance to immunopharmacology are highlighted in blue

HRAS Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

NRAS Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

KRAS Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

Further reading

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation (select format):

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Mathie AA, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Davies JA et al. (2023) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2023/24: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 180 Suppl 2:S289-373.