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JNK subfamily

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


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The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are a family of three enzymes (encoded by three genes) that bind to and phosphorylate c-Jun (a component of the AP-1 early response transcription factor; the other component is c-Fos). JNKs belong to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and share the family sensitivity to stress stimuli. JNK pathway activation has positive and negative regulatory effects on downstream proteins. c-Jun, ATF2, ELK1, SMAD4, p53 and HSF1 are amongst the targets that are activated by JNK activity, whereas NFAT4, NFATC1 and STAT3 are inhibited by JNK activity. JNKs contribute to cellular differentiation and apoptosis, and to the inflammatory response [2-3].


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Targets of relevance to immunopharmacology are highlighted in blue

JNK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8) Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

JNK2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 9) Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

JNK3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 10) Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link


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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

JNK subfamily. Accessed on 24/06/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Mathie AA, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Davies JA et al. (2023) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2023/24: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 180 Suppl 2:S289-373.