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SLC49 family of FLVCR-related heme transporters C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


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FLVCR1 was initially identified as a cell-surface attachment site for feline leukemia virus subgroup C [9], and later identified as a cell surface accumulation which exports heme from the cytosol [6]. A recent study indicates that an isoform of FLVCR1 is located in the mitochondria, the site of the final steps of heme synthesis, and appears to transport heme into the cytosol [2]. FLVCR-mediated heme transport is essential for erythropoiesis. Flvcr1 gene mutations have been identified as the cause of PCARP (posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa (PCARP) [7].There are three paralogs of FLVCR1 in the human genome.

FLVCR2, most similar to FLVCR1 [4], has been reported to function as a heme importer [3]. In addition, a congenital syndrome of proliferative vasculopathy and hydranencephaly, also known as Fowler's syndrome, is associated with a loss-of-function mutation in FLVCR2 [5].

The functions of the other two members of the SLC49 family, MFSD7 and DIRC2, are unknown, although DIRC2 has been implicated in hereditary renal carcinomas [1].


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Targets of relevance to immunopharmacology are highlighted in blue

FLVCR1 (Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor family, member 1 / SLC49A1) C Show summary »

FLVCR2 (Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor family, member 2 / SLC49A2) C Show summary »

MFSD7 (Major facilitator superfamily domain containing 7 / SLC49A3) Show summary »

DIRC2 (Disrupted in renal carcinoma 2 / SLC49A4) Show summary »


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Further reading

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

SLC49 family of FLVCR-related heme transporters. Accessed on 04/03/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Mathie AA, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Davies JA et al. (2023) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2023/24: Transporters. Br J Pharmacol. 180 Suppl 2:S374-469.