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Exchange proteins activated by cyclic AMP (EPACs) C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


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Epacs are members of a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ENSFM00250000000899), which also includes RapGEF5 (GFR, KIAA0277, MR-GEF, Q92565) and RapGEFL1 (Link-GEFII, Q9UHV5). They are activated endogenously by cyclic AMP and with some pharmacological selectivity by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP [4]. Once activated, Epacs induce an enhanced activity of the monomeric G proteins, Rap1 and Rap2 by facilitating binding of guanosine-5'-triphosphate in place of guanosine 5'-diphosphate, leading to activation of phospholipase C [6].


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Targets of relevance to immunopharmacology are highlighted in blue

Epac1 (Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3) C Show summary »

Epac2 (Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 4) C Show summary »

Further reading

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

Exchange proteins activated by cyclic AMP (EPACs). Accessed on 20/07/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Mathie AA, Peters JA, Veale EL, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Davies JA et al. (2023) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2023/24: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 180 Suppl 2:S289-373.