GtoPdb Ligand ID: 757

Synonyms: HC21 | macrophage inflammatory protein-1β | MIP-1β
Comment: CCL4 is a CC family chemokine more commonly referred to as macrophage inflammatory protein-1β or MIP-1β. It acts in a dimer with CCL3 (MIP-1α) [1].
Species: Human
Immunopharmacology Comments
CCL4 is a ligand for chemokine receptors: CCR1 and CCR5. Both macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIPs) are chemoattractants for macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils in an acute inflammatory response to bacterial endotoxins [2,9], and are crucial for immune responses in infection and inflammation [7]. MIP-induced activation of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) induces macrophages and fibrobalsts to produce and release pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α). CCL4 is a major HIV-suppressive factor produced by CD8+ T cells [4].